Belajar jadi Guru

Teaching Speaking

Posted on: July 20, 2010


Berikut ini makalah Pak Soegeng HS, MA Pengawas dari Kabupaten Boyolali dan Penulis buku pelajaran Bahasa Inggris di Penerbit Tiga Serangkai Surakarta tentang pengajaran speaking.

Teaching Speaking

Teaching Speaking Summary

SPEAKING

(Soegeng HS)

A. The Functions of Spoken Language

1. Interactional Function

When in a conversation the participants want to end up feeling comfortable with each other and friendly, and the topic or the content of the chat is not so important, the language has interactional function. In this situation the chat is listener-oriented, and it is often that the listener does not know or hear what has been said. The reaction which is usually given is a nod or smile.

2. Transactional Function

A language has transactional function when it is used to transfer information from the speaker to the listener. Then it is message-oriented.

B. Differences between Speaking and Writing

No. Speaking Writing
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

Takes place in context, which often makes references clear (e.g. ‘that thing over there’)

Speaker and listener(s) in contact, interact and exchange roles

Usually person addressed is specific

Immediate feedback given and expected:

a. verbal: questions, comments, grunts, murmurs

b. non-verbal: facial expressions

Speech is transitory. Intended to be understood immediately. If not, listener expected to interact

Sentences often incomplete and sometimes ungrammatical. Hesitations and pauses common and usually some redundancy and repetition

Range of devices (stress, intonation, pitch, speed) to help convey meaning. Facial expres-sions, body movements and gestures also used for this purpose.

Universal, every-one acquires their native language in the first years of life

Spontaneous and unplanned

Dialect variations commonly used

Informal

Creates its own context and therefore has to be fully explicit

Reader not present and no interaction possible

Reader not necessarily known to writer

No immediate feedback possible. Writer may try to anticipate reader’s reactions and incorporate them into text

Writing is permanent. Can be reread as often as necessary and at own speed

Sentences expected to be carefully constructed, and linked and organised to form a text

Devices to help convey meaning are punctuation, capitals and underlining (for emphasis). Sentence boundaries clearly indicated

Not every-one can write

Planned and takes time

Demands standard forms of grammar, syntax, and vocabulary

Formal

C. Skill and Knowledge

Knowledge of language components, such as knowledge of grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation, is important, but it is not enough for a speaker. The speaker is not only to know how to arrange sentences which is needed, but he is also has to have the ability to say the sentences. Thus in order to be able to speak one needs both the knowledge and the skill. Knowledge and skill can be understood and memorized, but only a skill can be imitated and practised.

D. Oral Skills

Motor-perceptive skills involve perceiving, recalling and articulating in the correct order sounds and structures of the language. These skills were well known during the era of audio-lingual approach. They made exercises like model dialogues, pattern practice, oral drill tables, look-and-say exercises and oral composition widely adopted. It was found later that motor-perceptive skills were not enough because they did not involve the context. There must be ‘transfer of skills’ that is transfer from a language-learning situation to a language-using situation. The speaker has to be able to decide what to say, how to say it, and whether to develop it, in accordance with one’s intentions, while maintaining the desired relations with the listener. The ability needed is then interaction skills.

E. Interaction Skills

Interaction skills involve the ability to use language in order to satisfy particular demands. There are at least two demands which affect the nature of speech. The first is related to the internal conditions of speech, that is the fact that speech takes place under the pressure of time, which is commonly called processing conditions. The second kind of demand involves the dimension of interpersonal interaction in conversation, which is called reciprocity conditions.

Due to the very limited time, the speaker may make grammatical and lexical mistakes and mistakes of message. The ability to master the processing conditions of speech enables the speaker to deal fluently with a given topic while being listened to. In ‘long speaking turns’ like an after-dinner speech or talk on the radio the speaker has more time to prepare than in ‘short speaking turn’.

The reciprocity condition of speech refers to the relation between the speaker and the listener in the process of speech. In a reciprocal exchange both participants share the conversation so there are at least two addressees and two decision-makers. Thus the speaker has to be able to adjust his vocabulary and message to take the listener into account. He has to have the ability to be flexible in communication.

F. Processing Conditions and Reciprocity Conditions

1. Processing Conditions

It has been stated that in speaking the time available is very limited. This makes speaking very different from writing. In speaking the words are being spoken as they are being decided and as they are being understood. This affects the ability of the speaker to plan and organize the message, and to control the language being used.

The results can be the inability of the speaker to make long and complex sentences, more chance to make grammatical and lexical mistakes and also mistakes in the message intended to express. The message is not so well and economically organized because sometimes the speaker forgets what he has said and repeats it himself.

Since once the word is spoken, it is gone, it is possible that the listener misses the words and the message and this leads to misunderstandings.

2. Reciprocity

In most speaking, the listener is in front of the speaker. Thus it is easy for the speaker to make sure that communication is really taking place. He can find how far the message is understood by looking at the listener’s reaction, and he can adjust his strategy to improve the quality of the communication from moment to moment. In this way the speaker compensates the limitation in the processing conditions.

G. Production Skills

It has been noted that the most important constraint in speaking is time pressure. In this condition the speaker has difficulties in planning, organizing and expressing the message. Thus he uses strategies to survive. He may do two things, namely to facilitate production and to compensate for the difficulties.

1. Facilitation

To make the production easier, the speaker may simplify the structure, use ellipsis, use formulaic expressions, and use fillers and hesitation devices.

a. Simplification of Structure

The speaker has no time to prepare long and complex sentences for his speech in a very limited time. Therefore, he uses less complex syntax. What is usually done is ‘parataxis’, that is to tack new sentences on to previous ones by the use of ‘and’ and ‘or’, ‘but’ or no conjunction at all. In addition to parataxis, the speaker often avoids complex noun phrases. He prefers to repeat the same sentence structure to add further adjectives separately.

Example        :

OK – in this picture in picture – er – number 1 I can see er a little girl – who probably – is inside – her house – er who is playing – with a bear – this bear – it has a brown colour – and – the little girl is sitting – in the – in the stairs of her house – this house is very nice – it has rugs – it has – brown rugs – mm – it has waste basket

b. Ellipsis

In order to speak economically, the use of ellipsis is important. Ellipsis such as “On Saturday”, “Who?”, and “Look!” are used by the speaker and in this case the listener has to know the background knowledge of the speaker. Other wise, he does not know what the speaker means.

Example :

M  :               in the old – or in the young continents

T                    :               erm the young continents – the young continent

M  :               in the young continents – America

T                    :               mhm

M  :               it’s in America – South America

T                    :               South America

M  :               near Peru

T                    :               near

c. Formulaic Expressions

Formulaic expressions of conventional colloquial or idiomatic expressions or phrases are very useful for speaking because the speaker does not need to think the structure and vocabulary he needs. He just says these expressions to execute his message. Formulaic expressions like “It’s very nice to see you.”, “Who does he think he is?”, “I thought you’d never ask.” are easy to memorize and use.

Example        :

OK – erm – a at the back [mhm] I mean er – in the office I also see a – this is a young lady [mhm] sitting in a chair [mhm] she might be a secretary [mhm] OK – it seems to me oh th this er little boy [mhm] this little boy seems to be – punished [mm] don’t you see – he has er – he has his – his hands – in the back

d. Fillers and hesitation devices

When the speaker is not ready with what he will say next, he can use fillers like ‘er’, ‘you see’, ‘kind of’, ‘uh-uh’, ‘well’,  etc. in order to get time to think and find what he is going to say next. Another way is to make use of pause or to rephrase what he or his partner has said. The final strategy to obtain more time to think is the repetition of words such as “I, I, I, want to go to the, the, the post office.”

2. Compensation

In speech correction of what has been said is necessary. The speaker may change, correct or restate what he has just said to clarify the message. This happens because the speaker, due to the limited time, feels that he has made a mistake and needs to correct it.

Example :

mhm yeah all right yeah I I’m sure the picture I have comes er before the erm before the one er in the table erm in my picture I think er we should already start describing our pictures OK so we can say it quicker in my picture I see erm I see a fellow riding a bike [mhm] and er approaching to a corner [mhm] where we can see a truck it seems to me that th this fellow is not er looking is not looking at the truck which is er approaching the corner.

H. Communication of Meaning

Communication of meaning depends on two kinds of skills, namely routines and negotiation skills.

1. Routines

Routines can be defined as ‘conventional ways of presenting information’. There are two main kinds of routines: information routines and interaction routines.

a. Information routines

Information routines means frequently recurring types of information structures, including stories, descriptions of places and people; presentation of facts, comparisons, and instructions. Information routines can be divided into expository and evaluative routines. Expository routines include narrative, description and instruction, while evaluative routines include explanation, justification, prediction, and decision.

b. Interaction routines

Interactional routines are routines based not so much on information content as on sequences of kinds of terms occurring in typical kinds of interactions. These routines include the kinds of turns typically occurring in given situations, and the order in which the components are likely to occur. They include telephone conversations, interviews, lessons, dinner party conversation, etc.

I. Negotiation Skills

Apart from the knowledge of routines, there is the area of skills involved in getting through the routines on specific occasions, so that understanding is achieved. There are two main aspects to this, namely negotiation of meaning and management of interaction.

1. Negotiation of Meaning

Negotiation of meaning refers to the skill of communicating ideas clearly. In order to ensure understanding, there are two important factors. First of all, there is the question of choosing a level of explicitness and detail which the speaker thinks is appropriate to his interlocutor. The second factor concerns the procedures used for ensuring understanding.

a. Level of Explicitness

Level of explicitness refers to the speaker’s choice of expression in the light of what the interlocutor knows, and what he needs to know. Grice (1975) says: “Make your contribution just as informative as required.” Lack of explicitness may appear arrogant, aggressive, and unco-operative. Too much explicitness results in boredom, confusion and feeling of being provoked on the part of the listener.

Example        :

Wife                                              :               Did you ring, then?

Husband      :               Yes, Friday.

Wife                                              :               Good, a risotto OK?

Husband      :               Fine

b. Procedures of Negotiation

Procedures of negotiation involves the way to express the message so that mutual understanding is achieved. These strategies include paraphrase, metaphor, and the use of vocabulary. In this way the speaker can decide how specific what he is going to say, for example whether it is serious or humorous.

J. Management of Interaction

Management of interaction refers to the business of agreeing who is going to speak next, and what he is going to talk about.

1. Agenda management

Agenda management covers the participants’ right to choose the topic, and the way the topic is developed, and to choose how long the conversation should continue. Thus agenda management concerns with the basic freedom to start, maintain, direct and end a conversation.

Example             :

Lulu                                                                                              :               Hasn’t Mrs. Boles got enough to do without having you under her feet

all day?

Stanley                                                         :               I always stand on the table when she sweeps the floor.

Lulu                                                                                              :               Why don’t you have a wash? You look terrible.

Stanley                                                         :               A wash wouldn’t make any difference.

Lulu              (rising)   :               Come out and get a bit of air. You depress me, looking like that.

Stanley                                                         :               Air? Oh, I don’t know about that.

Lulu                                                                                              :               It’s lovely out. And I’ve got a few sandwiches.

Stanley                                                         :               What sort of sandwiches?

Lulu                                                                                              :               Cheese.

Stanley                                                         :               I’m a big eater, you know.

Lulu                                                                                              :               That’s all right. I’m not hungry.

2. Turn-taking

The second way how to negotiate control of a conversation is the business of handling turn-taking. Efficient turn-taking requires five abilities:

1. Knowing how to signal that one wants to speak

2. Recognizing the right moment to get turn

3. Knowing how to use the appropriate moment to speak efficiently

4. Recognizing other people’s signals of their desire to speak

5. Knowing how to let someone else to have a turn.

K. Leaners’ Strategies of Communication

When a learner comes to a difficulty in communicating her message, she might use two kinds of strategies, namely achieving strategies and reduction strategies.

1. Achievement Strategies

Using an achieving strategy a learner attempts to find a way to convey her message. There are various types of achieving strategies, i.e.:

a. Guessing Strategy, which include foreignizing, borrowing, using literal translation of her mother tongue which is usually misleading, coining

b. Paraphrase Strategy, which includes lexical substitution strategy which includes using synonyms or more general words, and circumlocution which means using other words to explain the concept.

c. Co-operative Strategy, which is used when the learner wants to get help from her interlocutor. She can use a syntactic frame in order to elicit the word from her partner.

2. Reduction strategies

Avoidance strategies are the most common type of reduction strategies. A learner may avoid using a particular structure or vocabulary, and then she tries to find an alternative way or just sacrifice the message. Lack of vocabulary may also result in avoidance strategy and the learner looks for something else to change the message or just keeps silent.

L. Communication Activities

Communication activities (commonly abbreviated: commacts) are activities which make students communicate and interact with each other. In class there two kinds of commacts, namely dependent commacts which are clearly related to one of the topic mentioned in the curriculum, and independent commacts which are not clearly related to one of the topic mentioned in the curriculum because they are integrated lessons.

1. Criteria

There are several requirements for a good commact, i.e. :

a. Authentic

What is meant by authentic here is that the activity should be useful and reflect real life. That is why the teacher should give real life feed back after the learning process is over, so that the students are satisfied with what they have done.

b. Communicative

A good commact will encourage the students to communicate with one another. When students tend to work individually all the time, it means that the material needs revising. It is communication not the end product which should be emphasized.

c. Challenging

A commact is said to be challenging when it is a bit more difficult than the students’ level. ‘A bit more difficult’ here means there is still possibility for the students to do the task.

d. Intelligent

A commact should require the students to use their brains. There are several gaps which can be exploited to make the students use their brains, e.g. :

1)  Media gaps

The information is available in one medium and needs to be transferred to another medium. For example, reading – making notes – discussing the notes – completing a gapped text.

2)  Information gaps

One students tells another what he already knows but his partner does not.

3)  Opinion gaps

One student tells another his opinion about something. For example in ranking activity.

4)  Reasoning gaps

The students should extrapolate the clues and pieces of evidence to come into logical conclusion or prediction. An example of this activity is cloze passages.

5)  Memory gaps

The students receive some information, and then they use their memories for reconstruction.

Chain reading is an example of this kind of gap.

6) Jigsaw gaps

All the parts are available, but they need to be put together to form a complete unit, e.g. jigsaw reading.

7) Certainty gaps

Using the data which have been completely known the students should be able to predict what is available and what is completely unavailable, e.g. problem solving.

e. Interesting

It is easy to predict what will happen when the activity or the material is not interesting – the students will get bored and tired easily.

2. Types of Commacts

Since every teacher may create his own commacts, there are a great number of commacts, and their types vary. Some commacts might be named satisfactorily, some overlap with each other so that their names might be ambiguous, and some others are difficult to name. Indeed, names or terms are not so important; everyone may use their own names. It is, however, still necessary to mention some types of commacts here.

From Listening

a. Jigsaw listening

Students work in groups or pairs. Different listening texts are prepared. In groups of four, students A, B, C, D listen to texts I, II, III, IV successively. After listening to their own texts, the students exchange information about their texts. The exchange is done by questions and answers, but no student may listen to the others’ text.

b. Parallel listening

Students work in groups or pairs. One topic is described in different ways to make different texts. Each student listens to one text only. After listening they discuss to make a conclusion or to explain why it is described in different ways. A good example of this activity is a traffic accident described by the driver, the victim, and the witness.

c. Partial listening

Students work in groups or pairs. The message of a text is divided into parts. The students listen to some important parts only, and after listening they discuss to reconstruct the whole text.

d. Following instructions

Students listen to the instructions given orally by the teacher, then they do the instructions. TPR is a good example of this activity.

e. Mystery / Problem solving

The students listen to a problem carefully and then try to solve the problem in groups.

f. Situational listening

The students listen to a text (e.g. a dialogue) then discuss to find in what situation (where) this text might be found.

g. Interfered listening

The text does not only contain linguistic forms (sentences), but also other sounds such as coughs, sounds of vehicles, sound of rain. etc. which interfere the clearness of the linguistic sounds. They have to answer some questions about the text or to do other activities related to the text.

h. Sounds into stories

The students do not listen to linguistic forms, but a sound or sequence of sounds. They are asked to arrange a story based on the sounds they have just listened to.

From Reading

a. Jumbled reading

A reading text is divided into parts and given to the students. The groups’ task is to discuss to rearrange the parts of the text to make a complete one.

b. Jigsaw reading

The students work in groups. Every student gets a part of a text and must not read the others’ text. After reading, they discuss and exchange information to reconstruct a complete text.

c. Chain reading

The content of a reading text is divided into parts and given to the students. After the students read their own parts, the texts are taken away from them. Then the students discuss to reconstruct the whole text using the data they have just read.

d. Parallel reading

It is the same as parallel listening, but it uses reading texts.

e. Following instructions

The students discuss and follow the written instructions supplied.

f.  Situational reading

The text can be either a description or a dialogue of some situation which the students have to find out through discussion.

g. Mystery / Problem solving

The problem is presented in written form and the students have to solve it.

h. Partial reading

Students work in groups or pairs. The content of a text is divided into parts. The students reads some important parts of the text. After reading, they discuss to reconstruct the whole text.

i. Cloze text / Cloze passage

To make the students talk this activity is effective. A text is given with some content words omitted. The students have to work to fill the blanks with appropriate words.

From writing

a. Chain writing

In groups the students are asked to write a story or a dialogue. They have to write in turn. One student writes one sentence secretly, then passes the sentence to the next student. This student continues the story by writing the second sentence and passes the paper to the next one. It happens as many times as they like. This procedure is also applied for writing a dialogue.

b. Jigsaw writing

Every member of a group has to write a part of a certain text, and then they discuss together to combine their parts into a coherent text.

c. Writing instructions

The students work together to write instructions of doing or making something.

d. Correspondence

The students are given a task to write a letter for a certain purpose.

e. Situational writing

The students are given a task to write a text/story/dialogue appropriate for a certain situation/place.

f. Caption writing

The students are given one picture or more (or a series of pictures) and asked to write a story or a passage based on the picture(s).

g. Group writing

The students are asked to write a story in groups. The first sentence can be supplied by the teacher then they continue with the next sentences.

Using drama

a. Role play

The students represent the characters mentioned in the task. The students must enjoy the activity because they are playing. Therefore, relaxed situation is required.

b. Simulation

It is similar to role play, but it is more controlled.

c. Mime

The students describe what the teacher mimes in front of them.

d. Scenario

It is similar to role play. There are two things which make scenario different from role play, i.e. :

- In scenario the characters are always put into contradicting situation (there is always a conflict).

- During the activity they still work in groups.

- After the play the students and the teacher discuss any language items which have been used.

Example : The class is divided into two groups. One group represents a husband who is falling in love with another lady, and the other group represents the wife who is also falling in love with a young man. They keep their affairs secret. Each group discussed the strategy how the husband should tell his wife his affair so that she is not angry and allows him to marry the lady and vice versa. One member from each group performs and when the performers get stuck they can go to their groups to ask for suggestion, or their groups may meet them to whisper some suggestion. After the performance all of them discuss the language items which have been used.

e. Dramatization

The students dramatize what is found in a text.

f. Play writing

The students are asked to write a play in groups and then they are asked to try out it.

Using visual stimuli

a. Mystery picture

The students try to guess an incomplete picture and to give their reasons.

b.  Jigsaw

The students work in pairs. One student gets one picture or another thing, and the other gets a similar but different picture or thing. Every student must not look at his partner’s picture. They sit back to back and try to discuss to find the similarities and differences of their pictures.

c.  Sequencing

The students are asked to reorder jumbled pictures or things.

d. Prediction

A part of something is showed, and the students have to guess what it is, and they have to give their reasons.

e. Puzzles

The teacher plays a trick and the students try to explain what, how, why, etc.

f.  Mystery

The students have to guess what is in the bag. The teacher may give help if necessary.

g.  Matching

The students get several things or pictures. What they have to do is to match them and explain the reasons.

h. Describe and draw

Two students get two pictures which are the same but different in details. Each student keeps one picture and they sit back to back. One students describes his picture clearly so that his partner can draw on his paper to complete the picture and vice versa.

Or, one student gets one picture and the other gets a blank sheet of paper. The student with a  picture describes the picture and the other draws on his paper.

Games

a. Board games

Games using boards.

b. Activity games

Games for physical activities.

c. Rumour game

Students stand in lines. The first student of each line reads a sentence given by the teacher secretly. This student has to whisper the sentence to the second student in his line, and the second whispers to the third, etc. The last student has to write or to say the sentence he has got from the student next to him.

d. Word games

1) Crosswords

2) Scrabble

3) End the words

e.g. : Students A says ‘go'; student B says a word beginning with o (the last letter of ‘go’), e.g. ‘on'; and students C says a word beginning with n(the last letter of ‘on’),  e.g. ‘not’ , etc.

4)  Twenty questions / Who am I ?

The students must guess what the teacher has or who he represents only by asking maximum 20 ‘yes or no questions’. The teacher only answers ‘Yes’ or ‘No’.

5) Hangman

The teacher thinks of a word familiar to the students and draws a picture of a ‘hangman’s scaffold'; he also draws spaces – as many as the number of the letters of the word he thinks of – next to the scaffold, like this :

The students have to guess the letters in the word, and eventually, the word itself. A correct guess is rewarded by a letter in the correct blank. If an incorrect guess is made, one part of a man is drawn on the scaffold (The man is divided into as many as the number of letters in the word). The students must try to guess the word before the teacher completes the ‘man’. This activity is good for reviewing new vocabulary or troublesome spelling problems.

Example : The word ‘beauty’ (6 letters; the first and the third letters have been wrongly guessed)

e             u                             t

The Functions of Spoken Language

1. Interactional Function

When in a conversation the participants want to end up feeling comfortable with each other and friendly, and the topic or the content of the chat is not so important, the language has interactional function. In this situation the chat is listener-oriented, and it is often that the listener does not know or hear what has been said. The reaction which is usually given is a nod or smile.

2. Transactional Function

A language has transactional function when it is used to transfer information from the speaker to the listener. Then it is message-oriented.

Skill and Knowledge

Knowledge of language components, such as knowledge of grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation, is important, but it is not enough for a speaker. The speaker is not only to know how to arrange sentences which is needed, but he is also has to have the ability or skill to say the sentences.

Motor-perceptive skills

Motor-perceptive skills involve perceiving, recalling and articulating in the correct order sounds and structures of the language.

Interaction Skills

Processing conditions

Due to the very limited time, the speaker may make grammatical and lexical mistakes and mistakes of message. The ability to master the processing conditions of speech enables the speaker to deal fluently with a given topic while being listened to. In ‘long speaking turns’ like an after-dinner speech or talk on the radio the speaker has more time to prepare than in ‘short speaking turn’.

Reciprocity condition

The reciprocity condition of speech requires the speaker has to be able to adjust his vocabulary and message to take the listener into account. He has to have the ability to be flexible in communication.

Production Skills

Facilitation

Simplification of Structure

The speaker has no time to prepare long and complex sentences for his speech in a very limited time. Therefore, he uses less complex syntax.

Ellipsis

In order to speak economically, the use of ellipsis is important like “On Saturday”, “Who?”, and “Look!”

Formulaic Expressions

Formulaic expressions of conventional colloquial or idiomatic expressions are very useful for speaking

Fillers and hesitation devices

When the speaker is not ready with what he will say next, he can use fillers like ‘er’, ‘you see’, ‘kind of’, ‘uh-uh’, ‘well’,  etc. The final strategy to obtain more time to think is the repetition of words such as “I, I, I, want to go to the, the, the post office.”

Compensation

In speech correction of what has been said is necessary.

Negotiation Skills

Negotiation of Meaning

Level of Explicitness

Lack of explicitness may appear arrogant, aggressive, and unco-operative. Too much explicitness results in boredom, confusion and feeling of being provoked on the part of the listener.

Procedures of Negotiation

Procedures of negotiation involves the way to express the message so that mutual understanding is achieved. These strategies include paraphrase, metaphor, and the use of vocabulary.

Management of Interaction

Agenda management

Agenda management covers the participants’ right to choose the topic, and the way the topic is developed, and to choose how long the conversation should continue.

Turn-taking

1. Knowing how to signal that one wants to speak

2. Recognizing the right moment to get turn

3. Knowing how to use the appropriate moment to speak efficiently

4. Recognizing other people’s signals of their desire to speak

5. Knowing how to let someone else to have a turn.

Leaners’ Strategies of Communication

Achievement Strategies

Guessing Strategy, which include foreignizing, borrowing, using literal translation of her mother tongue which is usually misleading, and coining

Paraphrase Strategy, which includes lexical substitution strategy which includes using synonyms or more general words, and circumlocution which means using other words to explain the concept.

Co-operative Strategy, which is used when the learner wants to get help from her interlocutor. She can use a syntactic frame in order to elicit the word from her partner.

Reduction strategies

A learner may avoid using a particular structure or vocabulary, and then she tries to find an alternative way or just sacrifice the message. Lack of vocabulary may also result in avoidance strategy and the learner looks for something else to change the message or just keeps silent.

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