Belajar jadi Guru

BAHASA INGGRIS UNTUK TUJUAN PENGAJARAN

Posted on: August 17, 2010


Scaffolding talk

TESOL2006Scaffolding

BAHASA INGGRIS UNTUK TUJUAN PENGAJARAN

(Scaffolding Talk)

Dra. Helena I.R. Agustien, MA., Ph.D

Universitas Negeri Semarang

Fathur Rohim, SS.

PPPG Bahasa

BAB I

PENDAHULUAN

  1. KOMPETENSI YANG TERCAKUP

Menggunakan bahasa Inggris lisan untuk keperluan instruksional dan pengelolaan seluruh kegiatan kelas.

  1. PENTINGNYA MEMPELAJARI BAHAN PELATIHAN INI

lum 2004 mensyaratkan kemampuan mengelola seluruh kegiatan kelas dalam bahasa Inggris, mulai memeriksa presensi hingga membubarkan kelas. Para guru perla memiliki ketrampilan berbicara yang khusus diperuntukkan untuk tujuan ini.

    1. Bahasa guru yang sering didengar anak selama kegiatan berlangsung dapat menjadi model bahasa interaksi yang diperlukan dalam kelas maupun. Tanpa adanya teacher talk atau scaffolding talk yang memperlihatkan bagaimana bahasa Inggris digunakan dalam konteks sehari-hari, sulit diharapkan siswa akan memiliki kompetensi komunikatif yang memadai. Guru adalah ‘agen bahasa Inggris’ pertama dan terdekat yang dapat diakses siswa sehingga guru perla menguasai bahasa lisan untuk konteks pengajaran bahasa.
  1. TUJUAN

Peserta mampu menyelenggarakan seluruh kegiatan dalam kelas dalam bahasa Inggris yang menyertai tindakan (language accompanying action) mulai dari membuka hingga menutup pelajaran  serta mampu menggunakan bahasa Inggris untuk tujuan instruksional seperti reinforcing, basic questioning, variability, explaining, introductory procedures and closure dan advanced questioning..

BAB  II

BAHASA INGGRIS UNTUK TUJUAN PENGAJARAN

1. PENGANTAR

Sebagaimana tertera dalam BAB I, tujuan modul ini ialah memberikan bekal bahasa Inggris lisan kepada Anda agar Anda dapat menyelenggarakan pengajaran sepenuhnya dalam bahasa Inggris. Mengapa demikian? Karena Kurikulum 2004 mensyaratkan kemampuan ini agar siswa juga dapat mengembangkan kemampuan bahasa lisan. Bahasa lisan Anda yang lancar dan mudah difahami akan membentuk konteks belajar bahasa Inggris yang menunjang pemerolehan bahasa lisan siswa. Untuk itu, modul ini menyajikan bahasa Inggris otentik yang digunakan guru penutur asli dalam menyelenggarakan kegiatan belajar mengajar.

Seluruh materi yang ada berasal dari dua sumber, yakni English for Primary Teachers: A hand book of activities & Classroom language oleh Mary Slattery dan Jane Willis (2001) dan Sydney Micro Skills ( Turney et al.1983) yang memuat transkrip pengajaran beberapa mata pelajaran dalam konteks sekolah Australia. Kedua sumber ini membuka mata kita terhadap bahasa atau ungkapan-ungkapan apa saja yang benar-benar digunakan guru penutur asli. Bagi guru yang belum pernah berkunjung atau mengamati kegiatan kelas dalam konteks kelas penutur asli, informasi ini sangat diperlukan untuk menghindarkan penggunaan bahasa Inggris yang ‘tidak Inggris’ atau yang tidak digunakan penutur asli. Misalnya, untuk memeriksa kehadiran siswa guru mengatakan Lets’s call the roll. Ungkapan ini tidak akan pernah digunakan jika guru menerjemahkan bahasa Indonesia “Mari kita absen dulu’ ke, misalnya, Let’s have the absence. Untuk menghindari kesalahan atau kejanggalan ungkapan, akan sangat bermabfaat jika Anda meneliti benar dan menirukan ungkapan-ungkapan otentik dalam modul ini agar siswa terbiasa mendengar ungkapan yang berterima.

  1. LANGUAGE ACCOMPANYING ACTION (Bahasa yang menyertai tindakan)

Di bagian ini Anda dapat menemukan banyak contoh otentik mengenai

ungkapan-ungkapan guru penutur asli yang digunakan untuk mengelola kelas. Ungkapan-ungkapan ini menyertai tindakan mereka sehingga mulai dari memeriksa kehadiran hingga meninggalkan atau membubarkan kelas.

Ungkapan-ungkapan ini diharapkan dapat ditiru oleh para guru agar guru semakin meningkatkan kemampuannya berbicara seperti guru penutur asli. Disadari benar bahwa untuk mencapai kemampuan tersebut tanpa memiliki pengalaman belajar di negara penutur asli sangatlah sulit. Sering kali guru ragu-ragu atau takut kalau-kalau ungkapan yang diciptakannya bukan ungkapan penutur asli meskipun tata bahasa dan kosa katanya benar. Untuk menanggulangi masalah budaya ini, bagian modul ini menyajikan contoh-contoh ungkapan yang perlu dilatihkan.

Latihan dapat dimulai dengan membaca ungkapan-ungkapan jadi (fixed expressions) yang ada di sini. Pertama, Anda membaca dengan ucapan yang tepat. Sangat disarankan agar Anda menggunakan kamus untuk melihat cara pengucapannya. Jangan pernah merasa begitu yakin bahwa ucapan sebuah kata sama seperti yang kita duga atau kita pikirkan sebab kita belum memiliki intuisi seorang penutur asli. Misalnya, untuk mengucapkan kata yang terdiri atas satu suku kata seperti ‘roll’, kita perlu membuka kamus dan memastikan bagaimana ucapan yang diharapkan.

Setelah Anda memeriksa ucapannya, mulailah membaca setiap ungkapan dengan intonasi yang berterima bersama instruktur Anda. Setelah itu, Anda perlu mengulang-ulang dan menghafalkan ungkapan-ungkapan yang ada dengan kecepatan yang semakin tinggi. Artinya, Anda perlu melatih speech dan speed agar Anda dapat menggunakan ungkapan-ungkapan ini dengan lancar. Setelah itu, Anda diharapkan dapat mendemonstrasikan pengajaran yang sepenuhnya diselenggarakan dalam bahasa Inggris yang menggunakan kombinasi-kombinasi ungkapan yang ada di sini dengan ungkapan-ungkapan lain yang diperlukan.

Greetings and forms of address (Menyapa dan bentuk panggilan)

Teacher Children
Good morning

Good afternoon

Hello

children

everybody

boys and girls

girls and boys

Good morning

Good afternoon

Hello

Miss/Mrs / Mr

[surname]

[first name]

Teacher

Checking attendance (Memeriksa kehadiran)

Let’s call the roll.

Let’s take the register.

Let’s check to see who’s here.

Remember to answer “I’m here”.

Thank you everybody

So, everyone is here except…

So, only two people away.

Is everybody here?

Is anyone away?

No-one absent today?

Who is missing?

Let’s all count to see if everyone is here-girls first, then boys.

Oh good, Paula, you’re back. Nice to see you.

Are you all right now.

Oh, John’s away.

Who knows why?

Is he ill?

So, how many is 13 and 15?

Ok…Yes?

So that is 28 altogether.

Maybe he’s gone to the dentist. What do you think?

Is that more than yesterday?

Or less than yesterday?

Or the same?

Organizing the classroom (mengatur kelas)

1. Get your books and pencils  out.

2. Pick your pencils up.

3. Move the tables back.

4. Turn your face around to face the wall chart.

5. Put all your things away.

6. Close the window beside you.

7. Put your pencils down.

8. Turn back to face the front.

9. Leave these tables here.

10. Leave the windows open.

Ending lessons (Mengakhiri pelajaran)

  1. Ok, that’s all for now.
  2. Right. We’ve no time for anything else – don’t do any more – we don’t have any more time today.
  3. Ok – just one more time before going out for a short break.
  4. Ok, now stop! We haven’t enough time to finish the monster today. So stand up…
  5. Ok – just one more time and then that’s it.
  6. Ok, pick up all your things-and put the books in the cupboard.
  7. That’s all for today. On Monday, there’ll be more.
  8. Ok children, make a line to say goodbye – following the leader. Bye bye.
  9. Ok, it’s break time, So you can go out to play. But first-line up quietly by the door.

Giving instructions in English (Memberi instruksi dalam bahasa Inggris)

Sitting down and standing up Moving around
Come in and please sit down.

Ok – sit down now please.

Sit down together at your tables.

Ok – everyone – sit down – quietly.

Ana – sit down over there – with your friend.

Midori, turn around and face the front.

Ok, everybody, stop talking now and listen carefully.

Ok, please stand up. And don’t make too much noise.

Everybody up! that’s right!

Stand still! Don’t move .

Stay in your places! Stay where you are.

Right, Taro, can you come here please?

Ok, come out here to the front of the class.

Ok, your group, come up to the front.

Right, now, you, you, and you…come over here

Now, get into a line. Stand in a line.

I want you to make two lines, along here…

Like this, one behind the other.

Let’s see…move up a bit…good, that’s nice and straight!

Can you make a circle? A nice round circle. Good?

Not too close…a bit further apart…step back a bit, that’s better

Suresh…come forward a bit…Yes, that’s it.

Ok, thank you. Now go back to your places.

Being good – a positive approach to discipline (Berperilaku baik – pendekatan yang positif terhadap disiplin)

  • Please stop talking now. No more talking for a bit. Good you lot. That is nice and quiet. You others…shh. Calm down now, OK. That’s better.
  • Quite please! Settle down and listen. That’s good Eva. Thank you Emilio.
  • Everyone is sitting nicely…except for Tom! Tom, could you sit down like the others please? Thank you. Ok…
  • Ok, we need to be quieter to hear what everybody is saying. These two groups are doing an excellent job. Thank you for being quiet. And now we are waiting for…
  • Now who can tell me the name of the book? Lots of hands raised. Excellent.

Recalling routines: what we do when …(Mengingatkan hal-hal rutin: apa yang kita lakukan ketika…)

What do we do When we are learning a new song?

When we are having a story?

When we’re reading a big book?

When we’re playing follow the leader?

After cutting out and singing?

At the end of the lesson?

everybody stand up

come up and sit on the map

come and stand round the board

everyone come out here to the front

clear everything up nicely

line up – one behind the other

get our/your bags

line up in rows beside our/your tables

push the front desks/tables back

line up quietly by the door

Turn-giving (Memberi giliran)

  1. Everybody-all of you! Ready?
  2. Just this row.
  3. Maria, your turn
  4. Ok, this group now…
  5. Anybody else? Hands up…one at a time…don’t just shout out.
  6. Blue team – you start. Then red, then yellow
  1. Ok, yellow, your turn next.
  2. Right, now boys and girls…all together.
  3. Class – you’re in two halves…OK, this half first.
  4. Back row, then front row.
  5. Second row, then third row.
  6. Ok, you two, then you two, next.

Explaining and demonstrating (Menjelaskan dan memperagakan)

Today we are going to Do some colouring.

Do some drawing

Do some painting

Do some sticking

Look, like this…

Look at what we are going to make.

Next we are going to Make a monster Here’s one class 3 made.

Look here’s a picture for you to colour.

Over the next few lessons we are going to

make an Easter card.

Colour some animals.

Make a farm.

Make a circus pictures.

Here’s a sticker sheet for you to share.

We’ll start like this.

You can all choose a different animal.

Let’s do some together as a class first, so you’ll see. What I mean.

What it might be like.

What to do.

How to do it.

Asking for helpers and giving things out (Meminta bantuan siswa dan membagikan barang)

I need two helpers please So, you can give out these pictures?

One each.

Who’d like to help? You three? Fine.

Can you pass round these sheets of paper? So everyone has one?
Sachiko, can you help me?

Can you give out the cards? Three for each table.
Ann and Pat – you can help me. Hand these back down your rows.

Can you find the box of crayons and give them out?

Can you collect in the cards please? Thanks.

Phrases describing position (Frasa yang menyatakan posisi)

  1. On the left.
  2. In the middle – a bit to the left.
  3. In the corner, at the front.
  4. at the top of the tree
  5. at the back
  6. next to the tree
  7. right at the front of the picture.
  8. behind the tree
    1. in the background, far away
    2. under the tree
    3. at the front
    4. in the corner at the back
    5. on the right
    6. in the middle – a bit to the right
    7. by the bus stop

Asking who wants a turn (Bertanya siapa yang ingin mendapat giliran)

  • Who wants to start? Hands up!
  • Whose go is it?
  • Whose turn is it to do a mime?
  • One more go. Who wants the last go?
  • Blue team? But you started lat time.
  • Maria again? But you’ve just had a go.
  • Who has still not had a turn?
  • Who still wants a go?
  • Which group has not been?

What can you do with cards? (Apa saja yang bisa kita lakukan dengan kartu?)

Here are some cards.

These are picture cards.

These are word cards.

Here are some cards with phrases on.

Here are some cards with actions on.

Can you

Will you

Give them out?

Deal them out?

Share them round?

Mix them up?

Put them face down on your table?

You should have three each.

Each pair should have six.

Check you have eight on each table.

Put the rest in a pile face down.

Don’t look at them yet.

Just look at your own.

Spread them out so you can see them all.

Don’t show them to anyone else.

Don’t look at anyone else’s.

Which one makes a pair?

Whoop’s!

Oh dear!

Watch out!

Careful!

Wait a minute!

One’s gone in your lap.

One’s fallen in your bag.

One’s gone under your chair.

One’s fallen on the floor.

You’ve got an extra one.

You’re one short.

Can you pick it up?

Can you reach it?

Who hasn’t got all six?

Who’s got one missing?

Who’s got one extra?

Extra phrases for ball games (Frasa lain untuk permainan bola)

  1. Oh dear! You dropped it!
  2. Can you get it?
  3. Can you reach it?
  4. Kick it over here.
  5. Throw it gently.
  6. Who can catch it?
  7. Pass it back to me.
  8. Get a goal.
  9. Roll it don’t bounce it.
  10. Throw it away now.
  11. Mind the windows.
  12. Oh no it’d gone into the flower bed.
  13. No other ball games allowed in the classroom.

Asking children to guess or remember (Meminta anak untuk menebak dan mengingat)

Who can guess what

Can you say/ ask them what

Hands up if you can guess what

Can you remember what

They are doing?

They are going to do next?

Amanda and Martha were doing?

Setting up pairs and groups (Membuat pasangan dan pengelompokan)

Are you ready?

Ok, everyone.

So now everybody.

Quite please!

Listen carefully.

You’re going to do this

You’re going to work

You will be playing this

In pairs.

In twos.

In threes.

In groups of three or four.

Here are two pictures, but don’t look at them yet.

Keep them face down!

You must not show them to anyone else.

Keep them like this!

You can look at them both/all together

So, you two together.

You two and you three.

Go and sit with Laura please and make a pair.

Children in pairs or groups (Anak-anak berpasangan atau dalam kelompok)

Child 1 Child 2
Who wants to start?

Whose turn is it?

Who’s next?

You’re next/ I’m next.

Me! / Not me!

Mine! Yours! Ana’s!

Me! Ana!

OK.

I’ll draw and you colour, OK?

I’ll ask and you answer, OK?

You first and then me, OK?

Have we / you finished?

Yes.

All right.

Yes / No, you first!

Yes! / Not yet! / Just a minute!

Can you pass me a blue pencil / yellow crayon?

Can I have the rubber / the eraser please?

Oh, I need the ruler / the scissor.

Who’s got the red marker?

Here you are.

Here it is!

Here you are / Oh! Wait a minute!

Me! Here you are / here it is.

Letter and word recognition (Pengenalan huruf dan kata)

Can you find your

Who can find their

Name card on the table?

Favorite colour among these words?

Favorite food or drink?

Pick it up and show us…

Can you put it on your desk?

Can you read it out to us/

Good – can you tell us what it says?

How many other colour words can you read?

Who can find A word for a colour?

The word for blue?

The card which says blue?

A card with an animal name on?

What other animal words can you read?

What does this one say?

Phonic approach (Pendekatan fonik)

Who can

Can you

Can anyone

Find

Point to

see

A letter which says ssss

A word beginning with a w sound

A word that starts with a b

The letters for a th sound

A word that ends with a n sound

A word that rhymes with cat

Like a sssnake like in your name, Sam

As in wolf?

Like b for banana?

Like you get in three?

Like green, man?

Like hat, sat?

Finding the place (Menemukan tempat)

You need your

Please open your

Find where we go to last time

Find your place in your

Coursebook

Activity book

Workbook

reader

Page 13

Page 22

Page 30

Middle of page 14

Read what it says…

Can you read it on your own?

Can you do what it says?

Story questions and prompts (Pertanyaan tentang ceritera dan arahan)

Who

Was eating the cheese (at the beginning of the story)?

Saw the bird eating the cheese?

Wanted the cheese?

Asked the bird some questions?

Sang a beautiful song?

Dropped the cheese?

Ate the cheese in the end?

What

Was the bird eating?

Was the fox thinking?

Did the fox ask first?

Did he do then?

Do you think they both did next?

Do you think will happen next?

He asked him to sing a song.

He flew away to another wood.

Why do you think he asked the bird to sing? Because he liked listening to birds singing?

To make him open his mouth wide?

To make him drop the cheese?

How do you think The bird felt, at first?

He felt at the end?

The fox felt, at first?

At the end?

Happy? Pleased? Sad?

Hungry? jealous?

Proud? Cross? Angry?

A bit silly? Stupid?

Starting a feedback chat (Memulai obrolan yang bersifat balikan)

That’s a

That’s

Very nice

Lovely

Wonderful

Fantastic

Really good

Pretty good

Very neat

Caterpillar!

Picture!

Colouring

Writing

drawing

Can you tell me more about it?

Why did you do that bit yellow?

How many things has he eaten?

Wow, has he eaten all those things? Or only some?

What things does he like best?

My goodness – he’s got a lot of legs! Can he walk very fast?

So now, what are you going to draw/ write/ colour next?

When and how to correct (Kapan dan bagaimana mengoreksi)

Teacher

Vanessa

Teacher

Vanessa

Teacher

Vanessa

Teacher

Vanessa

Teacher

Interaction

Yes – it was a beautiful party. OK, now, who wants to tell the whole story?

I!

OK, Vanessa, you start.

Croc is sad, Croc is young. Croc is crocodil…

Crocodile

I have got…

He has got…

He has got a big mouth, big teeth and sad.

He is sad, yes. Why is he sad?

Commentary

(this was the end of the first retelling).

Should be Me or Can I? or Please! Teacher ignores it, as the meaning and intention are both clear.

Pronunciation error. Teacher corrects by putting emphasis on Crocodile, as this word occurs many times in this story.

Error affecting meaning, so teacher corrects.

Error of form – verb is omitted. Teacher rephrases to correct, and then picks up Vanessa’s idea to extend it.

Instructions for true/ false activities (instruksi untuk kegiatan yang memerlukan tanggapan benar/salah)

If it is true

If I’m right

Clap once like this.

Nod your head, like this.

Shout out “yes”.

Put one hand up.

If it is not true

If I’m not right

If I’m wrong

Clap twice – two claps.

Shake your head, like this.

Shout out “no”.

Put both hands up, two hands up>

What learners need to say and ask (Yang perlu dikatakan dan ditanyakan siswa)

Children

I haven’t got

I’ve lost

I’ve forgotten

Look, I’ve got

My pencils.

My colours.

My book

A new bag/ pencil case.

Some new felt tip pens.

Teacher

Has anyone seen Giorgio’s pencil/ book/ colours?

Can someone lend Giorgio a pencil/ some colours?

Who’s got a spare pencil?

Don’t worry, I’ve got a spare one/ set here.

Did you leave it at home? OK, never mind.

Here’s one/ Here you are.

Go and get one from my table.

Leila – can he look at your book?

Can he share with you?

That’s lovely. Who gave you that/ those?

Child

Excuse me! can you help me?

Please Miss X! Is this right?

I don’t know what to do.

Please can I ask in Spanish?

Teacher

Yes – of course, just coming.

Wait a moment Ana, I’m just helping Peter.

Yes…what is it you need?

That’s fine like that.

Yes… What do you need to know?

B. Bahasa Inggris untuk Tujuan Instruksional

Di bagian A di atas, Anda telah berlatih mendemonstrasikan ungkapan-ungkapan bahasa Inggris yang lazim dikatakan guru penutur asli. Di bagian ini Anda dapat membaca sejumlah transkrip atau rekaman bahasa Inggris yang digunakan penutur asli dalam proses belajar mengajar yang tersusun sedemikian rupa sehingga membentuk wacana kelas. Transkrip ini pada mulanya disajikan untuk tujuan pelatihan micro teaching (Turner et al. 1983) yang menunjukkan bagaimana caranya memberi peneguhan, memberi dan membagi pertanyaan dan sebagainya. Akan tetapi, karena tujuan modul ini lebih terfokus kepada bahasa yang digunakan untuk melakukan fungsi-fungsi micro teaching tersebut maka Anda diharapkan dapat memfokuskan diri kepada aspek bahasa.

Dengan melihat interaksi kelas yang utuh ini Anda diharapkan dapat memperoleh informasi otentik bagaimana guru penutur asli berbicara atau menggunakan ungkapan-ungkapan dalam rangka menyampaikan pesan atau content, menyusun kegiatan belajar, dan menciptakan wacana kelas.

Dalam membaca, pusatkan perhatian Anda kepada ketiga hal di atas. Perhatikan pula ungkapan-ungkapan yang digunakan untuk merealisasikan setiap ketrampilan. Misalnya, ungkapan-ungkapan ada saja yang digunakan untuk melakukan reinforcement atau peneguhan dan sebagainya. Keterangan mengenai konteks situasinya diberikan dalam tanda kurung (…).

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9 Responses to "BAHASA INGGRIS UNTUK TUJUAN PENGAJARAN"

thanks pak agus. ada tambahan materi baru.

sama-sama pak……semoga bermanfaat

thanks pak. artikel diatas btku lbh kenal real English

Thank you Mr. Agus. I hope with this Media like this can use for me to share it to students. God Bless Us!.

thanks blognya sangat memberikan informasi yang saya butuhkan…..

terimakasih infonya pak agus.bisa untuk bahan skripsi saya?

silahkan-silahkan mas………semoga sukses

dimana saya bisa membeli buku English for Primary Teachers: A hand book of activities & Classroom language oleh Mary Slattery dan Jane Willis (2001) dan Sydney Micro Skills ( Turney et al.1983)

huaduh……di http://nitrodownloads.net ada bu…..berupa file…tetapi kalau mau download harus jadi member dan membayar iuran tahunan….dalam dollar tentunya he he he. Coba yang lain di Amazon.com, atau gramediashop.com. Silahkan dicek

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