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Text-types chart for SMA

Posted on: October 10, 2008

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Text Types Chart

Isinya :


Social Function/


Generic Structure

Linguistics Features



1. Narrative

To amuse, to entertain and to deal with actual or vicorous experience in different ways

a. Orientation

Telling who the participants, the setting and the time in which the story takes place)

b. Complication

The problem of the story / a crises rises

c. Resolution

The problem is resolved

d. Re-orientation (optional)

– Specific participant

– Material process / Action Verbs

– Behavioural process (breathe, …..)

– Verbal Process (said, told)

– Mental process (Think, understand)

– Past Tense

Snow White

Beauty and The Beast

2. Recount

To retell past events for the purpose of informing or entertaining

(Usually focus on someone past experience)

a. Orientation

Telling who was involved in the story, where, and when

b. Events

The sequence of events

c. Re-orientation

Summarizing the events

– Specific participant

– Material processes

– Past tense

– Conjunction

– Adverb

– Adjective

My Holiday in Jogjakarta

Slobber on the Train

3. News Items

To inform readers, listeners, about events of the day which are considered newsworthy/important

a. Newsworthy Events

Recount the events in the summary form

b. Background Events

Elaborate what happened

c. Sources

Comments by participants, witnesses &authorities

– Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline

– Material processes

– Verbal processes

– Focus on circumstances


Social Function/


Generic Structure

Linguistics Features



1. Description

To describe a particular person, thing, or place

a. Identification

Identifying phenomenon to be described

b. Description

Describing / giving information about specific participant : part, qualities, characteristics

– Specific participant

– Simple present tense

– Adjectives

– Relating Verbs

My Family

National Park

2. Report

To describe the way things are with reference to arrange of natural, man made and social phenomena in our environment

a. Generic Classification

Telling what phenomenon under discussion is

b. Description

Telling the phenomenon is like in term of parts, qualities and habits / behaviour

– Generic participant

– Linking verbs

– Action verbs

– Present Tense



3. Explanation

– To explain the processes involved in the formation or workings of natural or socio-cultural phenomenon

– To give an account of how something works or reasons for some phenomenon

a. General Statement

b. sequenced Explanations

– Generic nouns

– Action Verbs

– Simple Present tense

– Passive

– Adverbial phrases

How Babies are born?


Life Cycle of The Malaria Parasite


Social Function/


Generic Structure

Linguistics Features



1. Analytical Exposition

To persuade the readers that something is the case

a. Thesis

Position : Introduces topic and indicate the writer’s position

Preview : Outlines the main arguments to be presented

b. Arguments

Point : restates main arguments outlined in preview

Elaboration : develops and supports each point/argument

c. Reiteration

– Focus on generic human and non human participant

– Use of simple present tense

– Use of relational processes

– Use of internal conjunction to state argument

– Reasoning through causal conjunction

Car should be banned from the city

2. Hortatory Exposition

To persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case

a. Thesis

Announcement of an issue concern

b. Arguments : reasons for concern, leading to recommendation

c. Recommendation : statement of what ought or ought not to happen

– Focus on generic human and non human participant except for speaker or writer referring to themselves

– Use of mental process

– use of material process

– Relational process

– Use of simple present tense

Porn web must be eradicated from the web

3. Discussion

To present at least two points of view about an issue

a. Issue

– Statement

– Preview

b. Arguments for and against or statement of differing points of view

– point

– elaboration

c. Conclusion or Recommendation

Focus on generic human and generic non-human participant

– Use of material process

– use of relational process

– use of mental process

– Use of comparative and consequential conjunction

– Reasoning expressed as verbs and nouns



4. Review

To critique an art work, event for a public audience such as works of art include movies, TV shows, books, plays, operas, recordings, exhibitions, concerts and ballets

a. Orientation :

Places the work in its general and particular context often by comparing it with others of its kind or through analogue with a non art object or event

b. Interpretative Recount

Summarizes the plot and or provides an account of how the reviewed rendition of the work come into being: it is optional but if present often recursive

c. Evaluation

Provides an evaluation of the work and or its performance or production ; is usually recursive

d. Evaluative Summation

Provides a kind of punchline which sum up the reviewer’s opinion of the art event as a whole ; it is optional

– Focus on particular participant

– Direct Expression of options through use of Attitudinal Ephitets in nominal groups, qualitative attributes and effective mental process

– Use of elaborating and extending clause and group complexes to package the information

– Use of metaphorical language (e.g. the wit was there, …..)

Harry Potter






4 Responses to "Text-types chart for SMA"

Quite useful, thanks…

Gene Adam

I am English teacher in my school and I want to share this information with my students. I will build a webquest for their.

good fil but can’t read full

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