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Language Teaching: An Introduction

Posted on: July 20, 2010

Berikut ini makalah Pak Soegeng HS, MA Pengawas dari Kabupaten Boyolali dan Penulis buku pelajaran Bahasa Inggris di Penerbit Tiga Serangkai Surakarta tentang pengajaran bahasa Inggris secara umum.

language teaching an Introduction







Monitor over users always thinks of grammar before using the language

Monitor optimal users thinks of grammar where necessary before using the language

Monitor under users never thinks of grammar before using the language


1. EGRA (Exposure, Generalisation, Reinforcement, Application)

2. PGR (Practice, Generalisation, Reinforcement)

3. PPP (Presentation, Practice, Production)


1. Skimming

2. Scanning

3. Reading for detailed information

4. Reading between the lines

5. Deducing meaning from context

6. Reference

7. Predicting

4. TRP (Testing, Revision, Practice)

5. TPR (Total Physical Response)

6. Self Study

7. Peer Teaching


Communicative competence Context and text

The Functions of Spoken Language                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Teaching and Learning Process

1. Ideational function

2. Interpersonal function

3. Textual function

Literacy levels

1. Performative

2. Functional = survival = threshold level

3. Informational

4. Epistemic


Motor perceptive skill

Interaction Skills

1. Processing Conditions

2. Reciprocity Conditions

Production Skills

1. Facilitation

a. Simplification of Structure

b. Ellipsis

c. Formulaic Expressions

d. Fillers and hesitation devices

2. Compensation

Negotiation of Meaning

a. Level of Explicitness

b. Procedures of Negotiation

Management of Interaction

1. Agenda management

2. Turn-taking

1. Knowing how to signal that one wants to speak

2. Recognizing the right moment to get turn

3. Knowing how to use the appropriate moment to speak efficiently

4. Recognizing other people’s signals of their desire to speak

5. Knowing how to let someone else to have a turn.

Learners’ Strategies of Communication

1. Achievement Strategies

a. Guessing Strategy, which include foreignizing, borrowing, using literal translation of her mother tongue which is usually misleading, coining

b. Paraphrase Strategy, which includes lexical substitution strategy which includes using synonyms or more general words, and circumlocution which means using other words to explain the concept.

c. Co-operative Strategy, which is used when the learner wants to get help from her interlocutor. She can use a syntactic frame in order to elicit the word from her partner.

2. Reduction strategies

Avoidance strategies are the most common type of reduction strategies.

Kinds of text

Recount (Spoof)




Exposition (Analyitical)

Exposition (Hortatory)

New item







Japanese Red
Lenny looked out into the street, and saw the small blue eyes of Dr. Spinks through the window. Lenny nearly cried out. He remembered the old doctor.

Four months before, Spinks came into Lenny’s shop. He wore the same old coat as today. He looked like a man with very little money. Lenny was sorry for him.

“Come in. sir, come in. Looking for something?”

“No, no – well, something small. I just noticed the name of your shop – Anything Old.”

“Take your time, sir. Look about the place.”

Spinks moved about the shop for nearly an hour. He asked about a chair, and an old table lamp.

And at last he said, “Oh, I don’t know. There’s nothing for me here. Thank you.. I’ll just  – Ah! – Wait! – This little wooden box. My daughter is looking for something like this. She wants some place for her earrings. It may be too small. And too old, I think. But I can clean it. Yes, all right – I’ll just take this.”

Four months was a long time, but Lenny was still angry about it. he old man got the box for nearly nothing. Later, Lenny found that it was a very old Chinese box. It could bring a lot of money. Lenny told the story to a friend who had his own shop.

“Ron, that old man knew about that box,” he said.

“Ah,” said Ron. “You had a call from Dr. Spinks. Old Man. Blue eyes. Glasses.”

“That’s him, Ron. A poor old man, with an old coat.”

“He puts that on when he’s coming to shops like ours, Lenny. But poor? Don’t you believe it. Money in the bank. And a big house – full of things from shops like yours and mine, Lenny. Oh, yes. He knows all about old things.”

And now he was here again, with the same old hat, and the same glasses.

“Well, well, Dr. Spinks,” Lenny said to himself, “ so you’re back again. But this time, I’m ready for you.”

Lenny moved over to one side of the shop, and moved a large blue cloth. He uncovered a glass bowl of water. Inside the bowl was a red-and –gold fish.

The shop  door opened, and Dr. Spinks walked in. He stopped just inside, and looked about him. His blue eyes stopped when they came to Lenny.

“He wants to know if I remember him,” Lenny thought.

“Good morning,” said the old man with care.

“Hello there. You saw something in the window?”

“No. No, thank you. Just looking.”

“Take your time,” Lenny said. “Have a good look.”

Lenny sat down in an old armchair and read a book. But he kept an eye on Dr. Spinks. The old man walked about the shop. He stopped and looked here and there, but never at the goldfish bowl.

The bowl came from Italy, and was hundreds of years old. It was Venetian glass, and it could bring a lot of money.

For a long time, the old man moved about the shop. He touched an old gun, looked at a gold ring, and walked on. To the left of the goldfish bowl, there were sole old newspapers, and here the old man stopped. He began to read the top newspaper.

“Some good papers, there, sir,” Lenny called out. “All from the last year. You like that kind of thing?”

“Er – no, no, thank you.”

Dr. Spinks moved on. For a time he looked at the little red flowers of a house plant. Then he made his way to a small white horse – it stood to the right of the goldfish bowl.

“I can let you have two of the horses, sir,” Lenny said.

“No, I don’t think so,” said Spinks.

“Are you looking for any one thing, sir?”

“Well, no. I don’t. I don’t think you have anything for me. N –oh, there is something. Have you got anything for a little boy? An old football? Something like that?

Lenny said, “Ah no, sir. Nothing like that. Sorry.”

“That’s all right. Well, goodbye then – Oh! – I see you have a little goldfish there. I think a boy would like that. Yes, I’ll just take the goldfish.”

“Goldfish!” Lenny cried out. “Goldfish! Do you know anything about fish, sir?”

“Well, no, I don’t.”

“Ah. I thought you didn’t. That is a Japanese Red. A great little fighting fish.”

“Oh? How much?”

“The High Street shops are selling those fish for fifty pounds these days, sir.”

“Fifty pounds for a goldfish?”

“Japanese Red, sir. Japanese Red.”

“But that’s too much.”

“I thought it would be, sir. Oh well, Someone else will buy it. I sell a lot of these.”

“You do?”

“Oh yes.”

“All right. I think a boy would like that. I’ll have it.”


“I’ll take it. You said you’re selling it for fifty pounds.”

?Oh no, sir. I said the High Street shops are selling them for fifty pounds. I can’t sell that one.”

“But why not?”

“You don’t understand, sir. This is Sunny Jim. A good friend, sir. He’s not just any old fish; he’s been with me for many years. Oh no, sir. I couldn’t sell him -.”

“But I’ll give you the fifty pounds.”

“He wouldn’t be happy without me, sir. No. And I wouldn’t be happy without him. All alone in the shop, you see.”

“Well, how much would you take?”

“Oh sir, I couldn’t -.”

“Come on, man, how much?”

“Er – nothing under a hundred pounds.”

“A hundred pounds!”

“I knew it was too much for you, sir.”

“It is not too much. I’ll take it.”

“Well, all right, sir. I’m sorry to ask but – do you have the money with you?”

“Yes, I do. Here it is. One hundred pounds.”

“Thank you, sir. The fish is yours.”


“Are you taking him with you?

“Yes. I’ll take it now.”

“Right. I’ll just get another glass bowl, sir.”

Oh, don’t trouble yourself. This one will be all right.”

“Oh no, sir. I couldn’t give you this bowl.”

“But I just bought it.”

“Ah no, sir. That’s not right, sir. You have bought the fish. Wait here, sir, and I’ll get you another bowl at once.”

“Ron?” said Lenny on the phone. “He came in again today.” Lenny laughed. “You were right. I got back the money for the Chinese box. Oh, and thanks for the bowl. You can have it back again now.”


1. Recipes

2. Written directions

3. technical instructions


1. Requests

2. Response to requests

Language notes:

You can often leave:            a/the/some/any    : (The) postman brought (a) letter

is/have                   : Ian (is) here. Robin (has) been skiing.

I/he/she                 : (I) arrived back yesterday.

my/his/our             : Bring (your) camera with you.

in/on/at                  : Mike (at) home now. Parcel came (on) Monday.

Reduce the number of words neatly:

I’m returning home at about six o’clock                                                                                                                            Back around 6


1. Explanations

2. Arrangements

Criteria of Communication Activities

1. Authentic

2. Communicative

3. Challenging

4. Intelligent

a.  Media gaps

b.  Information gaps

c.  Opinion gaps

d.  Reasoning gaps

e.  Memory gaps

f.  Jigsaw gaps

g.  Certainty gaps

5. Interesting


A grammar of a language is a book written about it

The grammar of a language is found in the written language

Some languages have grammar and some others do not

Grammar is something that can be good or bad, correct or incorrect

Some people know the grammar of their language and some do not





1. Monitor

2. Subject Matter


Monitor over users always thinks of grammar before using the language

Monitor optimal users thinks of grammar where necessary before using the language

Monitor under users never thinks of grammar before using the language


1. EGRA (Exposure, Generalisation, Reinforcement, Application)

2. PGR (Practice, Generalisation, Reinforcement)

3. PPP (Presentation, Practice, Production)

4. TRP (Testing, Revision, Practice)

5. TPR (Total Physical Response)

6. Self Study

7. Peer Teaching


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