Belajar jadi Guru

Language Testing: An Introduction

Posted on: July 20, 2010


Berikut ini makalah Pak Soegeng HS, MA Pengawas dari Kabupaten Boyolali dan Penulis buku pelajaran Bahasa Inggris di Penerbit Tiga Serangkai Surakarta tentang Language testing.

Panduan penyusunan soal (language testing)

KINDS OF TESTS

Kinds of Tests Remarks (Content, Purpose, Structure, Treatment)
Achievement (Attainment)

Proficiency

Aptitude

Placement

Formative (Diagnostic)

Summative

Power

Speed

Direct

Indirect

Contextualised

Decontextualised

Global (Integrative)

Atomistic (Discrete)

Communicative

Subjective

Objective

Criterion referenced

Norm referenced

The content is related to what has been learned

The content is not related to what has been learned

To identify those who are most likely to succeed in learning language

To place students at an appropriate level in a programme or course

To find the strengths and weaknesses of the students for future plan

To rank or grade the students or to decide their position

To find how much the students have actually mastered the language

To find the students’ speed in using the language

To ask the students to perform the skills being measured

To measure the underlying ability of the real life use of language

The tests are provided in context

The tests are provided without context

To measure one’s ability to use combination of elements at one time

To test a specific language element, e.g. grammar, or vocab at one time

Focus on language use in real life situation

The tests require expert judgment in the scoring process

The tests do not require expert judgment in the scoring process

The student’s result is compared to an agreed standard or criterion

The student’s result is compared to the others’

GUIDELINES FOR WRITING TESTS

A. General Guidelines (Validity, Reliability, Practicality)

  1. You should be clear about what you want to test.
  2. Tests must be purposeful, useful, and the result can be interpreted, and believed.
  3. Achievement tests should relate to what has been taught.
  4. Tests should be within the reach of the intended population (students).
  5. Tests should have beneficial washback effects on the teaching and the syllabus.
  6. Give the tests you have written to your colleagues to check.
  7. Tests should be reliable and practicable.

B. Specific Guidelines

  1. Rubrics should be clear, precise and simple. It is possible to give them in the native language. Students should know what to do, how to do and how they will be judged.
  2. Define the criteria for marking, if possible in advance of the testing. Unexpected but correct answers should be wisely treated.
  3. Avoid decontextualised tests because language is used in context for a purpose. Provide sufficient context.
  4. The context should clearly require the answer you have in mind.
  5. You have to foresee all possible answers, especially in open-ended items.
  6. In multiple-choice questions, the distractors should distract, and for relevant reasons.
  7. Avoid cultural bias, subject or background knowledge bias, or test knowledge bias.
  8. Write items whose response can be judged for adequacy.
  9. Encourage in your items the creative use of the language.

10.  Tests should be as similar as to real world communicative use of language.

11.  A communicative task like writing should give the students something to write, to someone, for a reason, and the students should be given some content to communicate.

12.  The language of the comprehension tests should be easier than the language of the tests.

We teach English

English is a language

Language is a means of communication

The students are able to use the language for communication

Communication involves 4 language skills

Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing

Language skills involves language components

Structure, Vocabulary, Pronunciation, Spelling

We teach (make the students learn) language skills & components

Materials taken from the curriculum in action (KTSP)

KTSP is based on SI and SKL

Testing is identical to teaching

The way & material to test is identical to those to teach

GRAMMAR

Multiple Choice

1. Tom ought not to … (A. tell   B. having told   C. be telling      D. have told) the secret, but he did.

2. Tom ought not to … the secret, but he did.

A. tell                                                                                                                          C. be telling

B. having told                                                              D. have told

A. tell

the secret, but he did.
3. Tom ought not to

B. having told

C. be telling

D. have told

4.                     A. Tom ought not to tell the secret, but he did.

B. Tom ought not to having told the secret, but he did.

C. Tom ought not to be telling the secret, but he did.

D. Tom ought not to have told the secret, but he did.

5.‘Tom ought not to have told anyone the secret.’

A. ‘So ought you.’                                                                   C. ‘Neither you oughtn’t.’

B. ‘Neither ought you.’                                    D. ‘So oughtn’t you.’

6. Tom ought not to have told the secret.

A. Tom did not tell the secret but he should.

B. Perhaps Tom may not tell the secret.

C. Tom told the secret but it was wrong of him.

D. It was necessary for Tom not to tell the secret.

7. ‘… was Robert late last week?’

‘Three times.’

A. How much                                                                                                                                      C. How often

B. How many                                                                                                                                      D. How long

Error recognition

1. I’m worried that you’ll be angry to me.

A                                                                                 B                                              C                                 D

2. Sun / is shining / brightly today,/ isn’t it?

A                                                         B                                                                                              C                                                                                    D

Rearrangement

1. You can imagine how ….

A. warm is it today                                                                              C. is it warm today

B. today it is warm                                                                               D. warm it is today

2. You can imagine how ….

A. it                                         B. today                                               C. warm                                               D. is

3. Not only ………………….

/the examination/very difficult/unfair/was/but/it/was/also

Completion

This book belongs … my sister.

Transformation

1. I was able to leave the office early yesterday.

It was possible ….

2. ‘When will you visit London?’ Mr. Brian asked me.

Mr. Brian asked me ….

Broken sentence

Take / drugs and stimulants / keep awake / while revise examination / often be very harmful. / It be far better / lead / balanced life / and get enough sleep / every night.

Pairing and matching

Going to see a film tonight?                                                                                                                   A.        Actually, I like them.

Don’t you find war films too violent?                                         B.         Yes, I probably will.

I can’t stand war films, can you?                                                                                   C.        Not really. I like them.

Contextualised

A 72-year-old Samoan who (1)  … no English at all spent thirteen days (2) … on buses in the San Francisco area after he had become separated (3) … his family, police said.

(4) … said that Faaitua Logo, (5) … moved to the United States two years ago, left his son and daughter-in-law  (6) … a few minutes in a market in San Jose (7) … something at a nearby stall. When he tried to return to them, he could not remember where they (8) … for him.

1. A. speaks                             B. is speaking                           C. has spoken                                                  D. was speaking

2. A. ride                                                          B. riding                                                                                   C.        to ride                                                                                          D. was riding

3. A. with                                                         B. from                                                                         C. by                                                                                                                            D. off

4. A. He                                                                       B. They                                                                                    C. One                                                                                                                  D. It

5. A. which                                           B. that                                                                                      C. who                                                                                                             D. what

6. A. in                                                             B. for                                                                                                   C. since                                                                                                     D. at

7. A. to buy                                          B. for buying                                         C. bought                                                                                             D. buying

8. A. waited                             B.         wait                                                                                          C.        were waiting                                                D. have waited

Researchers (1) to convince that a drug they (2) to test can improve the memory and that it (3) to be the forerunner of other drugs which eventually (4) to improve mental ability. (1) ……………

(2) ……………

(3) ……………

(4) ……………

Students who were given the drug for a fortnight did considerably (1. well) in tests than others. The tests included the (2. memorise) of lists of words as well as of (3. inform) from two massages transmitted at the same time.

(1) ………….

(2) ………….

(3) ………….

Items to consider:

1a. Old Mr. Jones enjoys … the children playing.

A. looking for                           B. looking at                                         C. looking on                            D. looking to

1b. Mr. Jones enjoys … the children playing in front of him.

A. looking for                           B. looking at                             C. looking on                            D. looking to

2a. … sun is shining today.

A. The                                      B. A                                         C. Some                                               D. —

2b. … Sun is shining today.

2c. … sun is shining today.

2d. Is … sun shining today?

3a. As soon as possible the next day I sent my story … the editor … the magazine … which my best work usually appeared.

3b. As soon as possible the next day I sent my story (1) … the editor (2) … the magazine (3) … which my best work usually appeared.

(1)                    A. to                                        B. by                                                                C. with                                                             D. at

(2)                    A. with             B. of                                                                 C. in                                                                             D. for

(3)                    A. at                                         B. about                                               C. in                                                                             D. by

4a. John can sing better than you.

You cannot sing ….

4b. You cannot sing as well as John.

John can sing ….

VOCABULARY

Multiple Choice

1. A person who receives and pays out money in a bank.

A. broker                            B. account                                            C. creditor                                            D. cashier

2. Advocate

A. advise                             B. contradict                             C. support                                                        D. damage

3. It’s rained continuously for two whole days.

A. without stopping                                      B. heavily                                 C. regularly                   D. at odd moments

4.                     A. bat

B. butterfly

C. bird

D. dragonfly

5. I saw a nasty … between two cars this morning.

A. danger                            B. happening                C. accident                                           D. damage

6.         Budi     : Tell me what time the doctor’s (1) … opens.

Ana                  : It’s open now. The (2) … will help you.

Budi     : Excuse me. I just want to collect a (3) ….

Ana                  : Is it for some (4) … for a headache?

Budi     : No. It’s for some cough (5) ….

Ana                  : Here it is. This should soon (6) … your bad cough.

(1)        A. office                                   B. surgery                                             C. hospital                                D. ward

(2)        A. porter                      B. hostess                                             C. waitress                               D. receptionist

(3)        A. cure                                     B. recipe                                              C. direction                              D. prescription

(4)        A. liquid                                   B. medicine                  C. solution                                D. prevention

(5)        A. drink                                    B. mixture                                 C. wash                                                            D. compound

(6)        A. cure                                     B. treat                                                             C. refresh                                                D. prevent

Associated words

1. Put a circle around the odd word.

son                                                                          father                                                                                                  boy                                                                                                      brother

2. Write down the particular subject connected by these words.

theatre                                             ward                                                                                                              sister                                                                            bed

Matching

1.         lying                                                                                                     lorry                                                                                                                 road                                                                                         talk

knocked                                                                                   policeman                                                                                 injured                                                  broken

Poor Tom was (1) down by a (2) last week when he was     crossing the (3). He was quite badly (4) and he had to go into hospital for a few days. His left leg was (5) and both his arms                 were cut. While he was (6) in bed in the hospital, a (7) came to (8) to him.

2.  A. completely                                   B. angrily                                  C. politely                                 D. carefully                                       E. quickly                                 F. busily

‘Write (1) …’ the teacher shouted (2) …, but don’t waste time. You must get used to working (3) ….’

‘Please, sir,’ a student said (4) …, ‘I’ve finished.’

‘No, you haven’t,’ answered the teacher. ‘You haven’t (5) … finished until you’ve ruled a line at the end.’

Completion

1. Snakes are one of the (1) d-m-n–t groups of (2) r-pt—-; there are at least 2,000 different (3) sp-c–s of snakes (4) sc-t—-d over a wide area of the earth.

2. Anti  : What’s the (1) today?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (1) …………..

Yuli      : It’s the seventh.

Anti      : At what (2) does the concert start?                                                                                                                                                                  (2) …………..

Yuli      : Seven o’clock. Just a moment. I made a

note of it in my (3).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               (3) …………..

READING

Matching

1. now                                                  bow/not/now/how/mow

2. sheep                                               shop/shape/sleep/heap/sheep

3. Tom is not going to your school.

A. Tom is not going to your pool.

B. Tom is going to your school.

C. Tom is not going to your school.

D. Tom is not coming to your school.

4. The boy runs after the girl.

5. coil /kɔil/ vt, vi wind or twist into a continuous circular or spiral shape; curl round and round: The snake ~ed round the branch.
n (C) 1 something coiled; a single turn of something coiled: the thick ~s of a python. 2 length of wire wound in a spiral to conduct electric current.

funnel /’fʌnl/                        n (C) 1 tube or pipe wide at the top and narrowing at the bottom, for pouring liquids or powders through small openings. 2 outlet for smoke of a steamer, railway engine, etc.

vt, vi (-ll, US -l-) (cause to) move (as if) through a funnel.

lattice /’lætis/ n (C) framework of crossed laths or metal strips as a screen, fence or door, or for climbing plants to grow over: a ~ window.

A. ………                                                          B. ………                                                           C. ………

True-False

5.         The sun rises in the west.                                                                                                                       T          F

6. Fish can’t fly, but birds can.                                                                                      T          F

7.  Eye-gazing and eye-avoidance have meanings and patterns of profound significance. Gazing at others’ eyes generally signals a request for information and perhaps affection, but embarrassment can result from too long a mutual gaze. In fact, in intimate situations, there seems to be an equilibrium involving proximity, eye contact, intimacy of topic, and smiling. If one component is changed, the others tend to change in the opposite direction.

a. Looking at someone else’s eyes or looking away from them means a person is thinking very deeply.                           (T                   F)

b. We generally look at another person’s eyes when we want information or a sign of affection from that person.                               (T                     F)

c. If two people look too long at each other’s eyes, they will usually become embarrassed.                                 (T         F)

Multiple choice (The examples here have short texts)

1. The eyes are wonderful teachers – even musicians, who deal with sound, learn as much as by (doing, playing, watching, practising) as by listening.

2. John is not as tall as Sally but he’s a little taller than Rick.

A. Sally is taller than John and Rick

B. John is not as tall as Rick.

C. Sally is taller than John but not as tall as Rick.

D. Rick is taller than John and Sally.

Completion

NEWTON THEATRE

FORTHCOMING ATTRACTIONS

Monday, 8 January for 2 weeks

MY FAT FRIEND

Charles Lawrence’s popular comedy

Wednesday, 24 January to

Saturday, 27 January

Shanghai Festival Ballet

presents

SWAN LAKE

1. The Shanghai Festival Ballet will

perform on … evenings.

2. … will be the most amusing play.

3. If you like dancing, you should see

….

Rearrangement

A. “Well,” said the farmer, scratching his chin, “I’ll tell you what we do.”

B. The man went back to his car with a puzzled look on his face and said to his wife, “I think he must be crazy.”

C. “We eat what we can and what we can’t eat we can.”

D. A curious tourist, after passing a huge field of carrots alongside the road, stopped and asked the farmer what he did with his large crop.

E. “He said they ate what they could and what they couldn’t they could.”

Cloze

Once upon a time a farmer had three sons. He was very rich and had many fields but his sons were lazy. When the farmer was dying, he called his three sons to him. “I have left you … which will make you …,” he told them. “But … must dig in all … fields to find the … where the treasure is ….

WRITING

Rewriting (Punctuation)

1. lend me your pen please peter asked

2. i took my pen out ani’s pocket

Filling boxes (Punctuation)

1.                            What do you want,                    I asked Henry

2. John                     who is speaking              is my friend

Multiple choice (Punctuation)

A. Tom asked me if I was going to the meeting?

B. Tom asked me, if I was going to the meeting.

C. Tom asked me, if I was going to the meeting?

D. Tom asked me if I was going to the meeting.

Multiple choice (Spelling)

1. A. thief                            B. belief                                                C. seize                                                D. decieve

2. A. sitting              B. writting                     C. setting                                  D. getting

Completion (Spelling)

1. o             u                      ing                                                        = happening, taking place

2. She is swimming in the s               m                     g                      pool.

Error-recognition (Spelling)

1. I want / to drink / a cup / of coffe.

A                                                         B                                              C                                                         D

2. It is / a very bed story / I have / ever heard.

A                                                                     B                                                                                              C                                                                     D

Dictation (Spelling)

Dictated:      pen

I use a pen to write a letter.

pen

Sentence combining (Pre-writing)

1. He likes ice cream … he won’t eat any.

2. Some people came late. They will not get good seats.

Sentence expansion (Pre-writing)

1. The … man hurried … to the … boy.

2. The man … will visit us ….

Sentence reduction (Pre-writing)

1. He told us about a man who had a wooden leg. (with)

2. This man, who is hungry, needs some food. (one word)

(Timed) copying (Pre-writing)

Changing a passage (Guided writing)

I was 9 when my parents moved here. My sister …… (I = Anis)

Building from a paragraph outline (Guided writing)

I / buy / new white swimsuit / I forget / bring / wallet …….

Writing a passage based on questions (Guided writing)

Arranging jumbled sentences (Guided writing)

Describing pictures (Guided writing)

Filling forms (Communicative writing)

Writing letters, advertisement, etc. (Communicative writing)

Writing styles (Free writing)

– Narrative                                                               – Argument

– Description                                                            – Comparison and Contrast

– Exposition

SPEAKING

Reading aloud

Conversational exchanges

1. Models: Mrs. Green lives in a flat. She doesn’t like living in a flat and would like to live in a small house with a garden. (She wishes she lived in a small house with a garden.)

It’s raining heavily. Tom and Anna are waiting impatiently at home to set off on their picnic. (They wish it would stop raining.)

a. Mr. Black has a small car but his neighbours all have large cars. He would like a large car, too.

b. Anna hasn’t learnt how to swim yet but most of her friends can swim.

c. Tom is waiting for Bill outside the cinema. The show is just about to start but Bill has not arrived yet.

2. Make an appropriate response.

a. You are trying to get to the market. Ask someone the way.

b. Do you mind if I smoke?

c. What about a game of tennis?

3. Follow the prompts in brackets.

Receptionist : Can I help you?

You                                                                         : (You want to know if there is a single room available.)

Receptionist : Yes, we have some.

You                                                                         : (Ask the price.)

Receptionist : Thirty-four pounds fifty a night.

You                                                                         : (Ask if it includes breakfast.)

Using pictures

1. Spot the differences

2. Sequencing

3. Last summer Lucy spent a few days with her uncle and aunt in the country. When it was time for her to return home, her uncle and aunt took her to the station. Lucy had made a lot of friends and she left sad on leaving them. She got on the train and waved goodbye to them. ….. Now you continue to tell this story.

Short talk & Role play

LISTENING

Phoneme discrimination

1. A. pin B. pen                                                  C. pan                                                              D. pain

2. A. sack                                            B. sock C. shark                                                           D. shock

3. A. face                                             B.         fist                                                        C. fix                                                                            D. fish

1.         A                                 B                                  C                                 D

2.         A                                 B                                  C                                 D

3.         A                                 B                                  C                                 D

3
2
1

4. pin –                       pin

A                 B                      C                     D

5.         sock –                       sock

A                     B                      C                     D

6.         Circle the letters of the same sentences:                                                A                                             B                                              C

A. There’s a bend in the middle of the road.

B. There’s a bend in the middle of the road.

C. There’s a band in the middle of the road.

7.  Choose the written word which corresponds to the spoken word.

a. Spoken: den

A. ten                                       B. den                                      C. Ben                                     D. pen

b. Spoken: I’ll thread it for you.

A. threat                                   B. dread                       C. thread                      D. tread

Stress and intonation

1. Spoken :       I’ve just given THREE books to Bill.

Written :        I’ve just given three books to Bill.

(   )       (   )  (   )    (X)    (   )    ( ) (   )

Statements and dialogue

1.  Spoken        : I wish you’d done it when I told you.

Written        :           A. I told you and you did it then.

B. I didn’t tell you but you did it then.

C. I told you but you didn’t do it then.

D. I didn’t tell you and you didn’t do it then.

2.  Spoken        : Why are you going home?

Written        :           A. At six o’clock.                                                                     C. To help my mother.

B. Yes, I am.                                                                                                    D. By bus.

Understanding talks & lectures, and Following instructions

Using visual materials

Spoken Written
X: Look! What’s that inside the square?

X: It’s a blue circle.

1. A B C

A.                                                                                              B.                                                                                  C.

Spoken Written
1. The lorry’s on the left of the motorcyclist.

2. The car’s travelling in the same direction.

1. T     F

2. T     F

Spoken Written
1. Dony can’t run as fast as Helga.

2. Tom wishes his sister could play tennis with him.

3. The switch is too high for Indri to reach.

4. The car’s going to crash into a tree.

1. A B C

2. A B C

3. A B C

4. A B C

Strategi Peyusunan Soal:

1. Buat Daftar Indikator yang akan diteskan

2. Beri distribusi jumlah soal dengan tally secara proporsional

3. Cari bahan untuk soal

4. Buat satu soal, beri tanda indikator di belakangnya

5. Lingkari tally yang terkait sampai semua indikator tercakup

6. Sisa tally yang sukar dilengkapi diberikan ke indikator lainnya

Skimming                                             /                       /                       /                                                                                                                                                           Soal 1 (Sk)

Scanning                                               /                       /                                                                                                                                                                                   Soal 2 (Sc)

Detailed                                                            /                       /                       /                       /                       /                       /                                                                                   Soal 3 (Ded)

Between                                                           /                       /                       /                       /                                                                                                                                   Soal 4 (Det)

Reference                                             /                       /                       /                       /                                                                                                                                   Soal 5 (Sk)

Predicting                                             /                       /                                                                                                                                                                                   Soal 6 (Ref)

Deducing                                              /                       /                                                                                                                                                                                   dst.

2 Responses to "Language Testing: An Introduction"

awesome articles

thank U for visiting my blog

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