Posted July 20, 2010on:
Berikut ini makalah Pak Soegeng HS, MA Pengawas dari Kabupaten Boyolali dan Penulis buku pelajaran Bahasa Inggris di Penerbit Tiga Serangkai Surakarta tentang pengajaran Writing.
A. What is writing?
– forming graphic symbols
– producing a sequence of sentences arranged in a particular order and linked together in certain ways
– encoding a message of some kind for a reader
B. What do we write?
– public: general
C. Why writing is difficult?
– psychological problems
– linguistic problems
– cognitive problems
D. Why teach writing?
– In the early stages which emphasise oral work writing serves a variety of pedagogical purposes:
a. provides facility for different learning styles
b. provides clear evidence that learners are making progress in the language
c. exposure to the foreign language through more than one medium
d. serves as a break from oral work and increases the amount of language contact
e. needed for formal and informal testing
– In the intermediate stages:
a. the same as in early stages
b. more extensive scale for integrative skills
c. written language provides context for learning
– In the post-intermediate stages:
a. writing may become a goal in itself
b. has a practical value
E. Rethoric resources:
1. Logical devices:
– addition: moreover, furthermore, besides, in addition (to …), what is more, etc.
– opposition (contrast): yet, while, on the other hand, however, inspite of, etc.
– result: as a result, so, therefore, etc.
– temporal sequence: after this, then, finally, when, etc.
– exemplification:for example, for instance, etc.
2. Grammatical devices:
– reference: back (anaphoric reference) and cataphoric reference
– substitution: do, so, one
3. Lexical devices:
– general word
G. Approaches to teaching writing
1. The Controlled-to-Free Approach: sequential, grammar, syntax, mechanics, accuracy
2. The Free-Writing Approach: quantity, minimal correction, audience, content, fluency
3. The Paragraph-Pattern Approach: building paragraph (analysis/copy/jumbled), organization
4. The Grammar-Syntax-Organization Approach: links the purpose and forms, grammar, syntax, organization
5. The Communicative Approach: purpose, audience, content
6. The Process Approach: time, feedback, writer’s process
METHODS OF SCORING AND EXAMPLES
A. Error-count or Points off:
Student begins with 100 points then they lose points for errors that occur.
1. Mechanics 20%
Vocabulary choice 20%
Grammar & Usage 30%
2. 5 4 3 2 1
C. Holistic (Impressionistic)
1. NS Native speaker standard
NS- Close to native speaker standard
MA Clearly more than adequate
MA- Possibly more than adequate
A Adequate for study at this University
NA Clearly not adequate
FBA Far below adequacy
2. 9 The writing displays an ability to communicate in a way which gives the reader full satisfaction.
8 The writing displays an ability to communicate without causing the reader any difficulties.
7 The writing displays an ability to communicate with few difficulties for the reader
6 The writing displays an ability to communicate although there is occasional strain for the reader.
5 The writing displays an ability to communicate although there is often strain for the reader.
4 The writing displays a limited ability to communicate which puts strain on the reader througout.
3 The writing does not display an ability to communicate although meaning comes through spamodically.
2 The writing displays no ability to communicate.
1 A true non-writer who has not produced essessable strings of English writing.
0 No attempt to do the task.
3. Novice-Low : No functional ability in writing the foreign language.
Novice-Mid : No practical communicative writing.
Novice-High : Able to write simple fixed expressions and limited memorized material.
Intermediate-Low : Has sufficient control of writing system to meet limited practical needs.
Intermediate-Mid : Has sufficient control of writing system to meet some survival needs and some limited social demands.
Intermediate-High : Has sufficient control of writing system to meet most survival needs and some limited social demands.
|92 Mount Road
October 10 1987
Sorry I wasn’t able to get to your party last Saturday. I was all ready to come and just about to leave when I got a phone call from a friend. He had just arrived from Teheran – on his way to Canada – and he wanted to spend the evening with me before he left the next morning.
Well, I couldn’t refuse, could I? Of course I tried to phone you, but your number was engaged. And after that I was busy with my friend all evening.
I hope you’ll understand. I know you needed my records, but I’m sure you all had a marvellous time just the same. My evening, as it turned out, was rather boring.
Hope to see you soon
– Personal communication:
— What is the writer’s purpose?
apologising and giving excuses
— How does the writer achieve his purpose?
Well, ….; I know ….; ….boring evening
— How does the writer establish and maintain contact with his reader?
informal (e.g. contraction)
— What typical features of written English are there in the text?
linking devices he cohesion
Note: It is not speech written down.
– How important is it to sequence the various pieces of information? (What happens, for example, if the
various pieces of information are jumbled?)
– How does it help to compare and contrast certain items?
– What is the purpose of giving examples?
– How important is it to define new terms and how do we do it?
|Electricity is the most useful form of energy there is. It is easy to produce; it can be transmitted over long distances; it is clean to use and it has no smell. Above all, it is convenient.
The electricity produced by nature – lightning -W*- is a different kind of electricity from that which flows through an electric light bulb. It is called static electricity, because it exerts a force which is stationary. It is easy to demonstrate electrostatic attraction. Rub a comb on the sleeve of your jersey. This will charge the comb with static electricity, and it will now pick up small pieces of paper.
The other kind of electricity needs to flow in order to have any effect. the electricity in a battery, for example, will not make a light bulb glow until bulb and battery are linked by wires through which the electricity can flow. This kind of electricity is often called current electricity; the wire ‘channel’ through which it flows is known as the circuit.
– How has the writer sequenced his information? How?
– Has he separated one piece of information from another? How?
– Has he made any comparisons and contarsts? How do these help the reader to understand the
– Has he defined any terms? How?
– Study the structure of the text, what element(s) is(are) found in paragraphs 1, 2, 3.
– para 1: ………………………………
para 2 : ……………………………..
para 3 : ………………………………
Learning to use the resources of the written language
Understanding how the written language functions
Reading is an essential pre-condition for writing
– Personal communication:
– Non-personal communication
What do you know about:
– logical devices?
words or phrases which indicate meaning relationships between or within sentences.
These include those for addition, comparison, contrast, result, exemplification, etc.
– grammatical devices?
those which signal relationships between sentences by means of back reference (anaphora).
– focus on accuracy
– focus on fluency
– focus on text
-focus on purpose
– focus on process
Writing in the early stages:
– naming rooms
– dictating the teacher
– listing things found in the classroom
– rearranging words alphabetically
– sequencing words
– categorising words
– doing puzzles
– playing bingo
– writing a similar dialogue
– completing a dialogue
– rearranging a dialogue
– read and write (filling forms / writing another text)
Sentence linking activities
– cloze text
– instructions for the other students or teacher
– short message
– asking for information
– short letter
Writing for fun
– jumbled texts
– role descriptions
A. Comparison and Contrast
1. Comparison and contrast is a method of development, not a purpose of writing
2. The purpose is to persuade, explain, and inform
3. Compare only the items relevant to the objects to be compared
4. Comparison emphasises the similarities, contrast emphasises the differences
5. When you compare, start with the significant differences and then focus on the similarities
6. When you contrast, start with the significant similarities and then focus on the differences
7. Divided Pattern of Comparison or Block by Block: Describe one thing completely followed by the other
8. Alternating Pattern of Comparison or Point by Point: Describe the items of the two things one by one
9. Transitional expressions:
a. transition in phrases:
– opposition or difference: in contrast to, different from, compared with, but, despite, nevertheless, still, yet, on the other hand, in spite of, however, on the contrary
– similarities: similar to, like, likewise, in a like manner, in the same way, similarly
b. coordinating conjunctions as transition: but, yet, or, nor
c. transitional expressions between sentences:
– addition : first, next, besides, in addition, moreover, furthermore, also, then
– similarities : likewise, besides, in the same way
– differences : on the other hand, in contrast, however, on the contrary
d. adverbial clause of comparison: just as, in the same way that
e. adverbial clause of contrast: while, whereas
f. adverbial clause of concession: although, though, eventhough
10. Important structure:
a. X is the same as Y X and Y are the same
X isn’t like Y X and Y are alike
X is the same colour as Y X and Y are the same colour
X is similar to Y X and Y are similar
b. X works as well as Y (does) X works better than Y
X is as good as Y (is) X is better than Y
X has as many books as Y (does) X has more books than Y
X is as a good student as Y (is) X is a better student than Y
c. different from, a little different, a major different, a great deal of difference, somewhat different,
much different, completely different
1. Introductory paragraph introduces the topic and the main idea
a. indicate the topic
b. indicate how the topic is going to be developed
c. contain the main idea usually called the thesis statement
The thesis statement should: – be expressed in a complete sentence
– express an opinion or idea, not only an announcement
– express an opinion, not a fact, so that one may agree or disagree
– contain only one idea, not more
2. Developmental paragraph develops various aspects of the topic and main idea. It may discuss causes,
effects, reasons, examples, process, classifications, or points of comparison and contrast
a. Each developmental paragraph discusses one aspect of the main topic
b. The controlling idea should echo (explain anything relevant to) the main idea
c. It should have coherence (runtut) and unity
3. Concluding paragraph is the conclusion or closing words
a. A conclusion can restate the main points briefly
b. A conclusion must not bring up a new topic
1. A narration is simply telling a story
a. context : when, where, to whom
b. point of view : first person (I, we) or third person (he, she, it, they)
c. selection of details : details are given proportionally (not too much or too less)
d. organization : beginning – middle – end
2. Expressions showing continuation of thought:
|first, second, etc
in other words
that is to say
in this manner
in addition to
in the same way
in any case
3. Expression showing passing of time:
|after a short/long time
after a while
4. Expression showing result:
|for this reason
because of this
|as a result
on this account
5. Expressions showing opposition:
on the other hand
|in spite of this
on the contrary
6. Three important points:
a. The first sentence should be interesting (make the reader want to know what happens next)
b. The event should told step by step
c. The story should be built into a climax
7. Written narration is more formal than oral one.
8. Oral narration is usually short, informal, and uses more contractions
9. Punctuation is very important in dialogues
John said, “I will go.” John said: “I want to go. This room is not good for me.”
“I want to go,” said John. “I want to go,” said John. “This room is not good for me.”
John said, “I want to go, but I can’t.” “I want to go,” said John, “but I can’t.”
10. Important structure:
a. preposition: at, on, in, by, during, by, before, after
1. A description tells how something or someone looks like.
2. Objective description emphasises the object or the fact, subjective description emphasises the observer
3. Three important qualities:
a. a well-defined dominant impression (usually in the topic sentence)
b. a clearly recognizable mood
c. a logical development
4. Steps of writing:
a. make the point of view
b. give general overall view or impression
c. give the details in logical sequence
5. Ways of modification:
a. adding adjectives
b. adding prepositional phrases
c. adding clauses
|Pre det.||Det||Subjective/General||Adjective with general meaning||Noun / Gerund / Related to noun||Head noun|
|Material Made of||Purpose Related to Consist of|
7. Passive voice is very useful and effective.
8. Clause subordinators: who, whom, whose, which, that, when, where, why
1. Example essay gives examples or illustration which supports the topic
2. Noun clause
a. What you want to do is not important to me
b. Whether (or not) he likes me is not important
c. I don’t know what his name is
d. He said that he would come
e. We are talking about how we should do it
F. Writing an essay
1. Good writing:
a. significant : giving information needed by the reader
b. clear : easily understood (readable)
c. unified : cohesive and coherent
d. economical : not wasting time to read
e. adequately developed : enough development of key points
f. grammatically accepted : no grammatical mistakes and mechanics
2. Kinds of writing:
a. message writing: for routine work – short and quickly written
b. self-controlled writing: the writer has known the material, e.g. case studies, reports, paper, articles, etc.
c. reflective writing: the writer writes exploratively or speculatively based on his experience
3. Style (the way of using the language)
a. Voice : – academic voice (objective)
– personal voice (subjective)
b. Stance : the state of feeling – literary meaning or connotative meaning
c. Tone : the mood the writer wants to project to the reader – neutral, clever, sensitive, shrill, relaxed,
playful, somber, arrogant, mocking, matter of fact, upset emotionally
4. Stages of writing:
a. Finding the material
b. Defining the text
c. Defining the audience
5. Strategies to find a topic:
a. Writing : don’t imagine but take a pen and paper and start writing
b. Brainstorming : write anything coming into your mind, a mind map is useful
c. Treeing : make a tree diagram to show what is more important than the other
d. Focused free writing: write freely without worrying the mistakes, and then reread it for correction
e. reflective writing: the writer writes exploratively or speculatively based on his experience