ENGLISH COMMUNICATION COMPETENCY IMPROVEMENT ON SPOKEN AND WRITTEN NARRATIVE TEXT THROUGH “VCD CUTTING” MEDIA IN SEMARANG 7 SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Posted August 4, 2010on:
ENGLISH COMMUNICATION COMPETENCY IMPROVEMENT
ON SPOKEN AND WRITTEN NARRATIVE TEXT
THROUGH “VCD CUTTING” MEDIA
IN SEMARANG 7 SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
Sri Muryati , Semarang 7 Senior High School
This is an abstract of a classroom action research, It’s title was English Communication Competency Improvement on Spoken And Written Narrative Text Through “VCD Cutting” Media In Semarang 7 Senior High Shool. The aim of this action research was to improve students’ English learning result. The learning process was implemented with two cycles (modes) , spoken and written English. Each cycle covered four steps, namely “Building Knowledge of the field, “Modelling Text”, “Joint Construction of the Text” and “ Indpendent/ Individual Construction of the Text. The implementation of these steps was devided into 3 cycles in action research, cycle I, II and III. Each cycle covered : Planning, Implementation, Observation and Reflection.
The research area covered :
- Genre : Narrative Text for students of Grade XII Language Program , semester 1.
- The problems proposed : How to improve students’ creativity, activities, and scores to express and response meaning in monolog teks in spoken and written accurately and acceptably on narrative text.
This research is for students of Semarang 7 Senior High School grade XII Language Program. Motivation and scientific atitude was measured with questionaires. Activities and skill process to communicate in spoken and written were measured with rubric assesment when they presented their groupwork of narrative reaching the Joint Construction of the Text. It was typed in Power Point completed with animation, sound, colour, the depth of the material and “VCD Cutting”. Cognitive domain was measured with pre-test and post-test.
The result of the research were as follows:
The result of the tes in cycle I was 63 Í SKBM ( School Passing Grade 64 ) , it didn’t fulfil the action achievement indicator. In cycle II, III fulfilled the action achievement indicator Ê SKBM ( School Passing Grade 64 ). The students’ average score were 71 in Cycle II and 79 in cycle III.
Students’ motivation and sciencetific result fulfill the achievement indicator. There were 21 out of 25 students gave positive response by stating agree towards the questionaires so there were only 4 students who didn’t agree with the questionaires.
The average score in cycle II on the spoken groupwork presentation was 84 Ê 64 and on the written group work presentation was 84 Ê 64 and this result really fulfilled the result of an action research.
In cycle III the students’ average score on the independent/ Individual Construction of Text was 70 which meant Ê the school passing grade 64. It meant that it fulfilled the achievement Indicator.
Key words: Senior High School English learning on narrative, VCD Cutting.
A. Background of the Research.
The implementation of the 2004 curriculum was started step by step in the academic year 2004/2005. There were significant changes from 1994 curriculum. These changes may cause some problems for most English teachers to implement the curriculum in the classroom
The writer teaches at Semarang 7 Senior High School which on the academic year 2004/2005 has started to implement 2004 curriculum. The new thing for the writer is that the 2004 curriculum suggested English teachers to use text type or genre based instruction. This means that rasionally, places language as function. One of the function of language is to deliver message, instruction, describtion of a thing or a person, telling stories, delivering procedure, expressing opinion, critizizing, etc.
According to the book of Standard Competence for English lesson for Senior High School students 2004 curriculum, standard competence which should be mastered by the students is that they should be able to communicate in spoken and written English acceptably and accurately in interactional dan short monolog especially on procedure, description, report, news item, narrative, recount/ spoof, exposition, discussion, explanation and review text. These texts are known as text types or ”genre” which really someting new for students as well as teachers. Because the 1994 curriculum was a kind of thematic based instruction.
It was mentioned in the Competency Based Curriculum that narrative text should be given to grade XII students. And the method of teaching English suggested in the curriculum is bicycle , spoken and written. Each cycle covers four stages namely, “Building Knowledge of the field ”, Modelling Text, Joint Construction of the Text, and Individual Construction of the Text” (CBC 2004).
In teaching narrative text, what is meant by cycle here is different from that in action research. So the meaning of cycle, spoken and written in teaching language has nothing to do with the meaning of cycle in action research. With these stages, students are guided to be able to create their own narrative texts in spoken or written form. According to the writer’s experience to teach in the classrom and the discussion of semarang 7 Senior High school English teachers in MGMP ( English Teachers Forum), most problem faced by the students is when they reach the stage of “Joint Construction of Text” and “Individual Construction of Text” both in spoken or written cycle. The writer found the problem when students try to express and response meaning in monolog text using spoken and written English accurately and acceptably. This difficulty effected the students’ English score. They did not reach the passing grade score. On the graduation meeting academic year 2005/2006, It was decided that there were 31 students failed . Most of them were caused by English score which did not reach the school passing grade. For grade X was 61 and for grade XI was 63. While the students everage score who failed was 52.
This problem had to be resolved. The writer, therefore, tried to find a solution. Because the problem was to express and response meaning in monolog text using spoken and written English accurately and acceptably , the writer tried to increase their performance by using suitable , interesting and exciting media, film. Average students at the age of Senior High like film stories that they watch on TV, VCD, or movie. By watching the visualism of a story there would be ideas appeared from them to tell stories about the film they watched in spoken or written form. The 2004 Curriculum also includes computer skill or Information Technology (IT) as a cmpulsory subject. This subject was very helpful for the students’ performance when they wre studying English. They could tell stories in spoken or written using media Microsoft Office Power Point completed with interesting colur, animation, and VCD cutting taken from motion pictures which reflected the stories they presented in front of their classmates.
Through their presentation , two cycles, spoken and written could be obtained at once. Spoken cycle could be seen when they told stories about the film and written cycle could be seen on the narrative text which they wrote in Power Point. But by using media VCD Cutting, is there any students’ improvement to express and to response meaning in monolog text in spoken and written form accurately and acceptably on narrative text? The writer formulated this question in a title : ENGLISH COMMUNICATION COMPETENCY IMPROVEMENT ON SPOKEN AND WRITTEN NARRATIVE TEXT THROUGH “VCD CUTTING” MEDIA IN SEMARANG 7 SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
B. Research Area.
The area of the research was as the followings:
- The main material of the research was genre Narrative and as the subject of the research was students of grade XII Language Program, semester 1:
- Cycle 1 : – Building knowledge of the Field. ( 6 p/ 3 meeting).
– Modelling Text ( 8 p/ 4 meeting).
- Cycle 2 : Joint construction of the Text ( 8 p/ 4 meeting)
- Cycle 3 : Independent Construction of the Text ( 6 p/ 3 meeting )
- Process quality : It was seen from the students’ participation in their group work and individual assignment.
- Result quality : It was seen from the students’ score in mid semester test.
- Based on the background above the writer proposed a problem how to improve students English communication competency on spoken and written narrative text through “VCD cutting” media in semarang 7 senior high school
- The Primary problem could be elaborated into the following subproblems:
- How to improve studentss creativity to express and to response meaning in monolog text on spoken and written narrative text accurately and acceptably?
- How to improve students’ activity to express and to response meaning in monolog text on spoken and written narrative text accurately and acceptably?
- How to improve students’ cognitive score to express and to response meaning in monolog text on spoken and written narrative text accurately and acceptably?
C. The Objectives of the research.
In accordance with the above problems, the objectives of the research were:
- To improve students’ creativity to express and to response meaning in monolog text on spoken and written narrative text accurately and acceptably.
- To improve students’ activity to express and to response meaning in monolog text on spoken and written narrative text accurately and acceptably.
- To improve students’ cognitive score to express and to response meaning in monolog text on spoken and written narrative text accurately and acceptably.
- To get school input from the teachers as the basis of making school decision so that it would fulfil the students’ need.
D. Review of Related Literature.
a. Explanation of Terminology.
Improvement is from the word improve which means make or become better. ( Hornby , 1973: 494). So what was meant by improvement in this research was the improvement of the students learning achievement.
According to Moh. Uzer Usman, to know the level of teaching learning achievement based on the curriculum implemented were as the followings:
- Maximum : If all the learning material is able to be mastered by the students.
- Very good / optimum : If most of the learning material (85 % to 94 % is able to be mastered by the students.
- Good/ minimum : If most of the learning material (75 % to . 84 %. is able to be mastered by the students.
- Fail : If less than 75 % of the learning material is able to be mastered by the students.
- So what is meant by improvement in this action research was to create the best situation for students to improve their ability to to express and to response meaning in monolog text on spoken and written narrative text accurately and acceptably through media “VCD Cutting” to reach the minimal level of achievement ( school passing grade ).
- “VCD Cutting”.
“VCD Cutting” is the result of cutting film from VCD using VCD Cutter software.
- Teaching and Learning Narrative Text.
Sardiman in Sudibyo AP said that teaching and learning means teaching and learning activity in interactive way between a teacher and students to reach a learning objective ( Sudibyo AP, 2006: 6).
Narrative is a piece of text which tells a story and , in doing so , entertains or informs the reader or listener. ( Mark & Kathy Anderson – Book 2 : 8)
According to Tri Wiratno, Narrative text is a text functions a media to reconstruct past experience. In general, narrative text is used to entertain readers or listeners by making past events alive again.. (Tri Wiratno, 2003:13).
According to CBC 2004 narrative text is a text which has the following characteristics: .
To amuse, entertain and to deal with actual or vicarious exoerience in different ways. Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to crisis or turning point some kind, which in turn find a resolution.
: sets the scene (when & where) and introduces participants/character (who)
: a crisis arises, something happened unexpectedly
: the crisis is resolved, for better or for worse
: closing to the narrative (optional)
Language Features of Narrative:
– Specific participants, for example, John and Harry rather than senior high school students.
– Past tense form, because we are describing things that happened in the past.
– Words giving details of people, animals, places, things and actions such as adjectives and adverbs. Connectors of time, such as last week, then, etc.
– Direct (the actual words spoken by a person), and reported or indirect speech ( the meaning of what the person said without using their actual words.) (Kurikulum 2004,2003:80)
So teaching and learning narrative text in this research means teaching and learning activity in interactive way between a teacher and students to reach learning objective – to express and to response meaning in monolog text on spoken and written narrative text accurately and acceptably.
4. Spoken and Written Cycle.
2004 Competency Based Curriculum differenciates spoken and written cycle as follows:
Cycles (modes) , spoken and written language are different in some cases: Spoken language has many verbs , the complexities of the connection between sentences, gambits and other fillers. . William R. Lee uses fillers such as : Well, You know/You see, etc.
While written mode, has the density of vocabularies, noun phrases, etc. Realizing the differences CBC 2004 highlights the language features of those two language modes. Hopefully, the language users pay a close attention to them so that they will not tend to use the language “speaking like a book” and “ writing like casual conversation” ( CBC 2004 :12).
b. The Meaning Media.
Media or medium means by which something is done. (Hornby 1973: 610). So in this research media means any possible thing which is able to deliver learning messages in a communication so that it can stimulate students to learn. (Kukuh, 2003). The media which is used in an instruction should be interactive which means media as instructional message deliverer involved students actively in the process of communication. So interactive instructional media can be used to improve learning models . For example , by giving a model of a narrative text students can create other narratives.
The term audio visual means all materials which present pictures and sound that can be combined as follows:
a. Paintings and recored human sound.
b. Paintings and music,
c. Photos, sound , music and human sound..
d. . film with narration, sound effect and music.
- The need of media in teaching and learning process.
In teaching learning process, there will be a comminication between a teacher a a message source and students message receivers.
To plan teaching and learning activity a teaher should choose media which is really effective and efficient.
When the media is an interactive one, the students are not only as listeners or wievers, but also involved actively in the learning process.
More over, media can overcome the teacher’s lack for example it can present sound effect, pictures and motion so that the message delivered will be more interesting and real. The weakness of media is that it can not replace teachers’ function.
Media will help teachers in teaching and learning process such as:
- Media audio with the native sound can help teachers and students pronounce difficult letters and words correctly.
- Media help teachers and students pronounce sentences and certain expressions using correct intonation.
- Modeling text helps students use grammar and cultural setting correctly.
- Media presents information or message consitently and can be repeated whenever it is needed.
- Information and Technology Media ( radio, TV, Internet/ Computer) presents information or message which overcome the limitation of time and place at once..
There are some choices of media which can be used in the English teaching and learning activities :
- Tape recorder nd cassette with native speakers is very good for modeling pronounciation and intonation.
- Film, very good for modelling situation.
- LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), is a practical hard ware and more interesting than Video, OHP. LCd is connected to computer using VCD player and camera so that it can be watched by the audience in the classroom.
- IT (Information Technology) or ICT (Information Communication Technology), is a multi media which can be improved through computer and internet where every person can possibly access learning information without the limitaion of time and place.
The usage of media in teaching and lerning process at school to increase the quality of education has often been done but not all schols can do that. This is because of the condition of the school and the teachers’ lack of competence in instructional media.
From the explanation about media, the writer chose media IT, computer and LCD with Microsoft Office Power Point and VCD Cutter software . Therefore, the writer used available instructional source (By Utilization) and design instructional source with Power Point and VCD Cutting (By Design).
c. Learning Cycle.
Hammond et.al ( 1992:17) divides language learning into 2 cycles, spoken and written language. Each cycle covered four steps, namely “Building Knowledge of the field, “Modelling Text”, “Joint Construction of the Text” and “ Indpendent/ Individual Construction of the Text .
d. Way of Thinking
What makes a good teacher? –Jeremy Harmer answered the questions from the result of an interview with students from different countries, two of them are:
- They should make their lessons interesting so you don’t fall asleep in them.
- A teacher must love his/her job. If he /she really enjoys his/her job that’ll make the lesson more interesting.
From this point of view, early reflection and the formulation of the problems, and the way how to solve the problem by making the situation of the class more interesting and enjoyable for both students and teachers by using VCD Cutting it was expected that the result of the teaching and learning on spoken written Narrative text
for the students of Grade XII Language program semester 1 , Semarang 7 Senior High School was able to improve . So , it could be formulated the way of thinking as follows:
Have less competence in expressing and responding meaning on spoken and written monolog text accurately and acceptably.
2. The process of teaching and learning
It was done mechanically
Not enough media available
Not yet/ never use authentic material.
Had less creativity to make interesting and enjoyable classroom situation and supported students to work in groups before they work individualy..
The effect : Low learning result on Narrative texts
Solution : Teaching and learning activity with VCD Cutting media
The result :The quality of the teaching and learning process on narrative text improved
F. Research Metodology
a. Action Hypothesis .
Hypothesis is a temporary assumption or theory of which the truth is still necessary to be investigated . (Suharsimi. 1998:68).
Therefore, in this research, the hypothesis proposed was :
“VCD cutting” media ‘ could improve the English communication competency on spoken and written narrative text in semarang 7 senior high school academic year 2006/2007
b. Relevan Research.
The use of accurate research methodology will not find a speculative truth so that it will really be an objective, accurate research and able to be responsible for the research..
Basically, the writer wanted to know the competency of the students of grade XII to express and response the meaning in the monolog text using spoken and written language accurately and acceptably on narrative text.
Planning of a research canbe devided onto 7 catagories , namely:
- historical research.
- development research
- case study
- co relational study
- causal comparative study
- experimental study
- action research
Based on the above categories, the relevant research was Action Research of which its procedure were : planning, acting, observing, and reflecting.
c. Setting of the research
This action research was conducted in the early semester 1, on the mid of July until September academic year 2006/2007 in Semarang 7 Senior High School for students of grade XII Language Program.
d. Subject of the Research.
The subject of the research was the students of grade XII Language Program. The reason why this class was used as the sample of the research because the students in this class had got the lesson about Information Technology (IT) so that it was easy for them to insert VCD cutting in their presentation with Microsoft Office Power Point.
This action research consisted of 3 cycles of which each cycle had the following actions:
- To construct teaching kits such as : development of syllaby, lesson plan, Narrative text material written in Microsoft Office Power Point completed with VCD Cutting.
- To construct peper and pencil test instrument for the pre and the post-test.
- To construct observation instrument for the individual and group work.
- To construct instrument to investiaget the students’ atutude towards the lesson.
- Implementation of the Action.
a. The first stage , Building Knowledge of the field (BKOF) , is very important for the students as it is the point at which overall knowledge of the cultural and social contexts of the topic is built and developed. It is also important for the students to have an understanding of the topic before they are asked to write about it.
b. The second stage, Modelling of Text (MOT) , the students are given a model of the text type or a genre they will be reading or writing. There is an explicit focus on analysing the genre through a model text related to the course topic.
c. The third stage, joint construction of text (JOT) , the aim is for the teacher to work with the students to construct a similar text that has been modeled before. Further group work may need to be done before the actual construction of the text begins. This may covers :
- gathering relevan information,
- having additional reading,
- watching the film chosen,
- learning how to do VCD cutting,
- writing notes to be used as the basis for writing the text. If the students still have difficulties about the text, they are guided to be back to the modeling text or even to the building knowledge of the field.
- writing a short story based on the film they watched on Power Point.
- having group work presentation and supporting the students in order to change the language from spoken to written mode. The emphasis at this stage is on the teacher giving guidance
d. The fourth stage , Independent Construction of Text (ICOT) . The students are guided to construct their own writing. The teaher’s duty is being available to consult with the student individually as they need an assistance. The teacher’s role is to provide constructive comments to the student for his or her development.
According to CBC 2004 Senior High School , the text types which should be mastered by the students of grade XII are narrative, explanation, discussion dan review. The writer conducted action research on two cycles, spoken and written for the students of grade XII Language Program , semester 1 who focused on the narrative text.
3. Observation .
On the stage of the observation the writer (as the researcher) and the observer (other English teacher) were involved actively. The observation for the students performance was done by the researcher and the observer used focused rubric
4. Evaluation dan Reflection.
Evaluatin for the action in each cycle was done based on the principle that the teacher could rivise or made a remedial teaching in cycle 2 based on the data taken during the action in cycle 1. And the evaluation in cycle 3 based on the data taken from cycle 2 , so that the process of evaluation , the effectiveness of the action was not only measured based on the result of the cognitive test but also measured based on the focused observation assessment , performance and atitude (affective) assessments.
5. Method of Collecting Data.
To cllect the data the writer designed the following instruments:
- Paper-pencil test.
- Performance assessment
- Systematic observation
Sumber : Data komputer di LPMP Jawa Tengah