Model Pembelajaran Teks REVIEW (SMA)
Posted August 17, 2010on:
Model Pembelajaran Teks REVIEW (SMA)
Helena I. R. Agustien
Universitas Negeri Semarang
A. Pendekatan Pembelajaran Berbasis Literasi:
Sesuai dengan PP No 10. 2005, pembelajaran bahasa diharapkan mengembangkan empat keterampilan berbahasa dengan penekanan pada reading dan writing. Ini berarti pembelajaran mencakup oracy (listening dan speaking) untuk komunikasi sosial, tetapi dengan menekankan fungsi bahasa untuk belajar, yakni literacy (reading dan writing). Maka, setiap rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran berbasis teks memiliki target yang sama, yakni membuat siswa sampai mampu menulis dalam bahasa Inggris.
Untuk mencapai kompetensi komunikatif tersebut semua kegiatan guru dan pengalaman pembelajaran siswa diatur dalam skenario yang membantu guru mengintegrasikan pembelajaran keempat skills. Skenario ini berupa dua siklus (lisan dan tulis) dan empat tahap (Building Knowledge of the Field, Modelling of Text, Joint Construction of Text, dan Independent Construction of Text) (lihar bagian B). Dalam pendekatan berbasis literacy, guru diharapkan menyusun kegiatan untuk memberi pengalaman pembelajaran (learning experiences) untuk mencapai kompetensi. Dalam menyusun pengalaman pembelajaran tersebut guru memperhatikan tujuh prinsip literacy (The New London Group, 1998) yakni: interpretation (interpretasi), convention (konvensi), collaboration (kolaborasi), cultural knowledge (pengetahuan budaya), reflection (refleksi), dan language use (penggunaan bahasa).
B. Metode Pembelajaran
Yang menjadi dasar pengembangan sebuah rencana pengembangan pembelajaran berbasis teks adalah tujuan komunikatif sebuah teks. Misalnya, tujuan komunikatif sebuah teks review adalah memberi penilaian, pendapat, komentar dll. Dengan alasan ini, maka tindak tutur maupun materi ajar yang digunakan untuk mengembangkan pembelajaran dipilih berdasarkan kriteria memberi penilaian, pendapat, komentar dll. Berikut adalah contoh skenario pelaksanaan pembelajaran berbasis teks review yang tujuan komunikatifnya adalah memberi penilaian, pendapat, komentar dll.
- Siklus Lisan
- Building knowledge of the Field (tata bahasa, kosa kata, ungkapan dll.)
- Modelling of text (Listening)
- Joint Construction of Text (Speaking: dialogues, conversations)
- Independent Construction (Speaking: Monologue)
- Siklus Tulis
- Building Knowledge of the Field (tata bahasa, kosa kata, ungkapan dll.)
- Modelling of Text (Reading)
- Joint Construction of Text (Writing, berkelompok)
- Independent Construction of Text (Writing, individual)
C. Teknik Mengajar:
Teknik mengajar apapun yang telah dipelajari dan dimiliki guru selama ini dapat digunakan dalam skenario metode di bagian B di atas. Misalnya, guru bebas mengadakan latihan membuat kalimat menggunakan modality, kosa kata yang biasa digunakan untuk mengungkapkan perasaan, pendapat (berbagai adjectives) dll. pada tahap BKOF sebab siswa tidak akan mungkin mampu menulis sebuah review tanpa kemampuan tata bahasa. Teknik mengajarnya diserahkan kepada guru. Di sini terlihat bahwa tata bahasa memperoleh tempat yang penting dalam pendekatan berbasis literacy. Tata-bahasa, kosa kata dll. adalah modal utama untuk mengembangkan keterampilan. Namun demikian, perlu diingat bahwa tujuan pendidikan bukan hanya untuk memperoleh pengetahuan tata bahasa dll., melainkan untuk maju ke tingkat yang lebih tinggi, yaitu merespon dan menciptakan teks mulai dari listening sampai writing.
D. Materi Ajar dan Media
Bahan ajar dan media mencakup semua resources yang berguna untuk mengembangkan kompetensi tindak bahasa, linguistik, sosio-kultural, strategi dan kompetensi berwacana.
Penilaian dilakukan dengan teknik tes biasa maupun dengan menggunakan lembar observasi untuk portofolio (lihat lembar-lembar observasi berdasarkan Brown 2004, O”Malley dan Pierce 2000). Prinsip-prinsip, teknik penilaian serta scoring yang terdapat dalam D. H. Brown, 2004 sangat sesuai untuk diterapkan dalam pengajaran bahasa berbasis literacy (lihat Modul Penilaian).
Model Pembelajaran Teks REVIEW (SMA)
Helena I. R. Agustien
Universitas Negeri Semarang
|Siklus||Tahap||Kegiatan Scaffolding Guru||Kegiatan Siswa||Keterangan|
(Grammar, vocabulary, cultural knowledge dll)
Good morning… dsb.
Let me ask you something. Did anyone of you go to Gramedia bookshop on the sixteenth of July… about a month ago?
What happened? What was so special about that date?
Right. Did you see many people in the bookshop?
Was it easy to get the book?
So, you ordered the book, didn’t you? Why?
That’s clever. Cheaper and to make sure you get one.
Did you? Was it a long queue?
So how much did you pay for it?
Wow…, That’s a lot of money, isn’t it?
But why did you buy it?
So, you think it’s good, right?
How do you know it’s good?
Good. After reading something, you can say that something is good, or not very good, or bad… depending on what you think about something.
Do you watch Harry Potter films too?
What do you think? Are they good?
Awesome! Great! So you like them, don’t you?
Listen… When you say that a book or a film is good… very good… awesome… cool and so on … you actually evaluate something. And evaluation is an important part when you review something.
Do you understand what I mean by REVIEWING?
When you review a Harry Potter film, for example, you say what is good or what is not good about it so that other people learn something about the film. When you say that a film or a book is good, people will be interested and then they buy or watch it. Have you seen such a review on newspaper?
What do they call it here?
The purpose of Resensi Buku is to review… or to give critique on a work or event. When doing so, the writer evaluates the work or the event. Do you understand?
Now let me hear your personal comments about Harry Potter 6. Everyone can give me one word, JUST ONE WORD to give me ideas about Harry Potter 6.
Okay. What else?
Right. What else?
Good. Anything else?
More ideas, please…
Boring? Anything worse?
Right. You came up with a negative comment.
Yes. Another critique, you see.
So… you have mentioned at least 8 adjectives. Those adjectives represent your opinion, your evaluation about a book.
Now you see that you need to know many adjectives so that you will be able to express your opinions or what you think about something. Adjectives convey your feelings. So you need to be careful in using adjectives because people can find out about your feelings just by hearing the adjectives you use.
For example, when you say “This is a stupid book!” people will know that you do not like the book. But, if you want to let your feelings out… you have adjectives to do the job, for example “This book is awesome.”
Now, look here. I have got some nouns, and you are supposed to put some adjectives before the nouns. Make sure the combinations make sense.
Now you can have another try. This time, you put more than one adjective to the nouns. For example, “This is a cheap boring story.”
Good. Now let’s try to add more words to express more feelings of yours. For example “This is the most disgusting boring story I’ve read in my life.”
You see… You can express your strong feelings and opinions through adjectives. To review something you need to use all kinds of adjective.
Once you know how to create noun phrases with different adjectives, you can create a REVIEW text.
To review something you can do it in different ways. Sometimes you only need one word, few words or many words. A complete review has a structure involving ORIENTATION, INTERPRETATIVE RECOUNT, EVALUATION, and EVALUATIVE SUMMATION.
At the orientation stage, you introduce the thing you want to review… to put your review in a context. Then you can go on by summarizing the whole or the parts of the book that interest you. This is called an interpretative recount. And then you give your comments on that recount, and this is called evaluation. This is where you use a lot of adjectives. And, finally, you give a punch line of emphasis on your evaluation. This is called evaluative summation.
Let’s have a look at some short examples here by Lianna B. She uses many words. Try to indicate the structure the text.
Komentar pendek (boleh ada, boleh tidak)
Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince was the much anticipated book of the summer. And, really, of the last two years since Book 5 came out. I waited to read it while I was on vacation this past week and I have to admit, I could not put it down. I read it at the beach, by the pool, in the condo, during meals, everywhere!
The beginning I found to be a little slow, but the drama did pick up towards the 10th chapter and from then on I couldn’t put it down. It was shocking and intriguing all at once.
I cannot wait for the final installment now! One recommendation, make sure you’ve read all the preceding books first, because there are a lot of references to previous events that were in books 4 and 5 in this one and if you haven’t read them you may be a little lost.
Now try to find some adjectives used in the text. In which part does the writer use adjectives most?
In the evaluation part you can find two verbs that end with “ing”. “Shocking” and “intriguing”. They end with “ing”, but they function as adjective. So you can use “true” adjectives such as “good, excellent” and so on, but you can also use verb plus “ing” to create adjectives.
Let’s try to make adjectives from verbs plus “ing”. Look at these verbs. They are usually used as adjectives when you put “ing”.
Now… think about things that bear those adjectives.
Right. “Confusing news… amusing film… boring lesson… surprising gift… frightening situation… exhausting exercise… interesting movie” and so on.
To make people know that you are expressing your own feelings you can also use some gambits such as “I think…, in my opinion…, to my mind…, I personally feel, l would say that…” and so on. Now let’s use both gambits and adjectives together. For example:
Okay now… before you go… I want you to read a story… any story… it can be a story for children, a novel, a comic, news or whatever you can find. Then you will tell me what you think about it.
Yes, I did, Ma’am!
Harry Potter! Harry Potter sixth!
Yes. Many people.
Well… sort of… I ordered the book.
Cheaper, Ma’am. Make sure I get one.
But we had to queue, Ma’am.
Pretty long. But Okay.
Two hundred thousand, Ma’am.
Yes. Very expensive.
It’s good. I love Harry Potter.
After reading it.
Yes. Of course!
Resensi Buku, Ma’am.
Siswa mencoba memberi adjective yang tepat untuk kata benda tertentu.
Siswa mengucapkan noun phrase dengan dua adjectives atau lebih.
Siswa mencoba latihan yang lain.
Membaca contoh-contoh pendek.
Siswa mengidentifikasi struktur teks.
Siswa menggaris bawahi adjectives yang banyak digunakan dalam evaluation.
Siswa menambahkan “ing”
Siswa membuat penilaian terhadap sesuatu menggunakan adjektiva participle “ing” dan menggunakan gambits pada awal kalimat secara lisan.
|Guru membangun konteks agar siswa mengetahui hubungan teks dengan tata bahasa, kosa kata serta membuat pelajaran menjadi interaktif.|
|Modeling of Text
|Good morning… dst.
Today we are going to listen to conversations and see how well you understand them. In the conversations you will learn how people criticize or complain in English. Now, listen to this:
Toni: Hi Jane. What are you doing here?
Jane: Nothing. Just getting some fresh air. It’s so stuffy inside.
T: Yeah. You’re right. I think so too. That’s why I went out here.
J: What do you think of the party?
T: It’s pretty boring… there’s nothing much to do.
J: You’re right… They could have made it more exciting, though… with games, dances…
T: Yeah… all we can find here is food.
J: That’s true… and not good food either
T: I don’t think the party is well planned.
J: You’re right. No.
Prita: Hi Bayu… May I borrow your Harry Potter, please ?
Bayu: Sure. I’ve just finished reading it. I read until midnight last night.
P: Did you?
B: I did. I couldn’t stop until I finished it. It was so exciting.
P: Really? I can’t wait to read it.
B: You should read it. There are a lot of surprises there… you know… things that you didn’t expect to happen.
P: Wow… it sounds interesting.
B: I think it’s more than just interesting. Some parts are so frightening, intriguing, surprising, amusing… but certainly not boring.
P. Oh please… please don’t tell me more about it. I want to find out myself when I read it.
B: Fair enough. I’ll bring it for you tomorrow.
B: My pleasure.
Andre: Sari… Come here! Look what’s happened!
Sari: Oh my God! My budgie is dead!
A: Poor bird… who could have done this?
S: Yeah… who did this?
A: I think… maybe… it’s a cat.
S: How could a cat get here?
A: I have no idea… Oh… there it is! I think somebody had left the door open.
S: What did you say?
A: We forgot to lock door.
S: Yes… but why? Why didn’t anyone of us notice that?
A: Right… You shouldn’t have left your budgie here. You should have brought it home. I am so sorry…
S: I can’t blame anyone, can I? Oh… my sweet budgie…
A: Let’s get another budgie at the bird market. And don’t leave it at school next time.
S: Thank you, Andre.
Hey… I tell you what. We went on a trip last Sunday to Kopeng. Twenty of us going together and we spent the night in a villa. It was quite cheap because we paid only three hundred thousand rupiahs for four bedrooms. But things didn’t turn quite good during the night, you know… It was freezing cold and there were only eight blankets for twenty people. There was no room heater… and the worst was that the water heaters did not work. None of them did. So… we had very cold showers and some of us did not dare to have shower. It was horrible! Staying in a cheap place is not always a smart decision.
Siswa mendengarkan, merespon pertanyaan guru, menirukan dsb.
|Guru memilih percakapan-percakapan yang mendemonstrasikan berbagai tindak tutur seperti mengkritik, menyalahkan, tidak menyalahkan, dan sebagainya.
Guru dapat juga membaca teks secara langsung dan tidak harus dengan tape recorder. Disarankan agar guru memeriksa ucapan setiap kata dalam kamus sebelum membaca nyaring.
|Joint Cosntruction of Text
(SPEAKING IN GROUPS)
|Good morning … dst.
Today we are going to practice our conversations. I am going to give you some situations and try to figure out what kind of dialogues you are likely to have. Now we are going to work in groups of three. Please make groups of three and I’ll give you the assignments.
You and your friends were joining a cooking competition at your school. However, one of your friends came late, and he forgot to bring a cooking utensil you need. In such an emergency, you had to use whatever you had. The food did not turn out good and your team lost.
You and your class organized a trip to Bali. Many of you wanted the cheapest way to go there, so you chose the cheapest package tour. However, you had to spend some nights in the bus, many of you got sick and tired, you could not enjoy your days there because you were sleepy, and the hotel did not have enough bathrooms for so many people. Plus, the bus’s air conditioning didn’t work well. Some of your friends were not punctual. They always came back to the bus late every time you had a stop at a tourist spot.
You organized a fund-raising activity for a trip. Your group had to go to some companies to sponsor a film show at the movies. Some companies were good, but many of them were not cooperative. These companies didn’t give money; they said that students didn’t want to work hard. All they wanted to do was asking for donation. You were upset. You didn’t make enough money from the show, in fact you lost money.
All right everyone… I think you did a great job here. Your conversations sound interesting. Next week we are going to talk about the books you have read and see what you think about them.
Siswa membuat percakapan yang mengandung tindak tutur menyalahkan, mengkritik, meminta maaf, mengeluh, mengakui kesalahan, menyesali dll.
Siswa diingatkan akan tugas membaca buku yang diberikan dua minggu sebelumnya.
Assignments semacam ini melatih siswa melakukan problem solving, reflection, dan language use.
|Independent Construction of Text
(SPEAKING IN MONOLOGUE)
|Morning everyone… I think you are ready to say something about the books. Use some adjectives that best describe the books. Mention
||Siswa diarahkan untuk bermonolog dengan tujuan mereview. Review dapat direalisasikan dalam lima kalimat atau lebih.|
(Grammar, vocabulary etc.)
Today we are going to talk about the differences between facts and opinions.
Last week we talk about the books that you read, right? So, when somebody asks you about the story, you can tell her or him the story. But, it would be very difficult for you to tell the story using the exact same words as you find in the book. Do you think it would be possible at all to do it?
Right. So you tell the story in a summary form. It’s shorter than the original… kind of to cut the story short. When retelling the story, you are talking about ‘facts’, the things that are really there in the story. You do not make things up; you do not give your opinion. When you do this you actually give an interpretative recount. Interpretative recount sometimes occur in a review text, but not always.
When your friends ask you what you think about the story, you can say “I THINK the story is good” (or bad). Once you say I THINK, you actually give your opinion or evaluation about the book. So, in order to distinguish an interpretative recount from an evaluation, try to put I THINK before the sentence. This can be a good test. When you say I THINK, then, you are not talking about facts; you are talking about opinion, about evaluation.
Now, Ari, could you retell your story to the class, please?
Very good, Ari.
Now what do you think about the story? Anyone can tell me?
You see… now you can make your evaluation. Those words are yours and you can put I THINK before the adjectives. You can say I THINK IT IS INTERESTING.
Look at the following short reviews. They go straight to the point, to the evaluation, because evaluation is the heart of a review.
Paul R.:Very poor ending
I did not enjoy the sixth installment of the harry potter series. JK Rowling really dissapointed me with her horribly low creative skills. I will not spoil the ending, but why did he have to die? I think that the book chain is now just trying to get money, and not please her fanbase.
The writer uses “I” as Subjects to show that the things said are seen from his/her point of view. Let’s have a good look at some more.
Linda P.:Excellent Book!
I am a big fan!! The first chapter starts with all this history and the oo’s and aah’s of how other branches of the stories comes into place. I was just dying to get a copy of the book from my library but it was all taken. A co-worker lent me his copy and the book has kept me reading on the subway. Rowling has a knack of bringing a sense of humor in her writing and this book is no exception. There is also some serious drama in the story and seems to have been building in each of her books.
Rachel G: I know you’ve been wondering
Pros: Exciting, readable, surprising
Cons: Doesn’t answer questions from previous books
So was it really up to?
I give it four stars because it was a good read, but I do not give it five stars because there was just too much that was left out and unanswered. I’m still trying to figure out what happened to the Weasley family member named Charlie.
Now, you can go to the Internet and find more short reviews of Harry Potter 6. I want you to share the comments with your friends.
Try to find a long review that has ORIENTATION, INTERPRETATIVE RECOUNT, EVALUATION and EVALUATIVE SUMMATION.
Ari menceriterakan kembali isi buku yang dibacanya secara singkat.
Siswa lain menjawab:
Siswa mendiskusikan dan mengidentifikasi berbagai pendapat mengenai buku Harry Potter 6.
Siswa membuat daftar EVALUATION dari pembaca Harry Potter 6.
|Modeling of Text
|Okay class… Today we are going to look at a complete type of review. Look at the text written by Raj. I think he is a big fan of Harry Potter.
By Raj S: The long awaited book
After nearly two years of waiting the anticipation alone is enough to ruin Harry Potter before it even gets published. Fans of the wizarding boy and his adventures are often so strung out for a new book that they tend to build up the greatness of the writing and it has to be hard to continuously live up to those high expectations time and again. Well, J.K. Rowling has lived up to the expectation for the 6th time in her newest addition to the series ” Harry Potter and The Half Blood Prince” .
I have to admit I was immediately thrown for a loop as the new novel was presented in a different way. Previously every single book started and basically concluded the same way.
Each book starts out as Harry is miserably surviving the summer at the Dursley’s. He has a problem and they move on to school the main story always takes place here and then after the conflict is resolved it peacefully concludes with all the kids promising to write over the summer as they head off once more to spend the summers at home. This book didn’t even get to Harry or the Dursley’s house until the second chapter.
The reader immediately found them selves thrown into a tumultuous time in both Britain and the Wizarding world. This change hooked you for sure , which is the ultimate goal, but at the same time set an uncomfortable feeling of change where that predictability from the other novels was gone.
This book finds the characters turning 16 so they are getting up there in age and their behavior is starting to reflect it. They are suddenly interested in the opposite sex and spend time “snogging” which is kissing.
Of course this is behavior today seen in 12 year olds but still I found it quite pathetic and unsettling as an adult reading the book . I have no doubt a certain population of youngsters at the right age will be begging for more “snogging”. But, whatever! This book answers a lot of questions and goes deep into the past to help Harry understand his opponent better so that he may learn how to defeat him. The book also progresses into what I feel is the creepiest scenes by far. Even as an adult , I found my self uncomfortably scared reading some of the trials Harry had to go through in this book . And yes, someone very important dies. This has changed the face of Harry Potter forever and the book takes a decidedly different turn.
The reader is left not knowing who to trust and even whether Hogworts will exist for the next school year. In any event Harry and his faithful Friends don’t intend to return for their final year! Yes , they will become drop outs in their mission to ultimately end the rein of terror brought about by Lord Voldemort and his following. Some one has to do it .
So that sets the stage for book 7. Just in case you are a robotic machine and were not all ready hooked, this book leaves you no other choice but to continue when book 7 is issued to actually find out how it all ends , because this book offers no real conclusion. That is most unsettling to have that feeling of no conclusion knowing it will most likely be another long two year wait for the next book.
In conclusion , although drastically different this is no exception to the wonderful work of J.K. Rowling. You will not put this book down and wish you had taken longer to read it once your done because it is a long wait we are looking at for the next Harry Potter!
|Sesuai petunjuk guru, siswa mengidentifikasi bagian dan struktur teks.
Siswa menjawab comprehension questions.
Dengan pancingan dari guru siswa mendiskusikan fungsi adverbs, adjectives dalam teks. Jenis-jenis kata ini menunjukkan sikap penulisnya.
Secara berkelompok siswa mencoba manghapus adverbs yang ada dalam tiap paragraph. Siswa diminta pendapatnya tentang kualitas teks setelah adverbsnya hilang.
Secara berkelompok, siswa diminta menghlangkan adjectives yang ada dalam teks. Siswa diminta pendapatnya apa yang terjadi jika adjective dihilangkan.
Latihan ini dimaksudkan untuk menyadarkan siswa tentang pentingnya adverbs dan adjectives dalam teks tertentu.
|Joint Construction of Text
(WRITING IN GROUPS)
|Good morning… dst.
Today we are going to write small texts and you can work in pairs. I am going to give you the assignments. You are supposed to write a short review about different events. Don’t forget to use adjectives and adverbs.
Your school band won the first prize in a competition. You watched them perform in the event.
Your friends perform an English drama at an ENGLISH NIGHT in your school theatre. The audience fell asleep.
Your class has just displayed a wall magazine at your school. It invites a lot of readers.
Your friend wrote a short story. It was published in a national newspaper.
You ate in a new restaurant and you enjoyed the meals a lot. However, you paid a lot too.
|Siswa menulis berpasangan dengan teman di sebelahnya.||Latihan ini membiasakan siswa untuk berani berpendapat, baik nagatif maupun positif.|
|Independent Construction of Text
|Good morning… dst.
I think you did a great job last week with your small reviews. Now it’s time for you to try a bigger one.
Let’s watch a Harry Potter film. I have with me Harry Potter number 1. So, watch it very closely and think which parts are interesting or boring or disappointing or… whatever you think.
I giving out these sheets and you can see that you are supposed to write according to the text structure available in the sheet. Are you ready?
|Siswa mencoba menulis berdasarkan:
|Process writing dilakukan pada tahap ini.|